Table 2

Summary of associations with Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) score at a minimum of 10 years’ psoriatic arthritis disease duration (235 patients)

VariableProportion (%)Effect on HAQ* (median disease duration 13 years)SEp Value95% CI
Baseline†0.090.1400.51(−0.18 to 0.37)
Male sex52.8
Female sex47.20.390.095<0.01(0.20 to 0.57)
<50 years of age at diagnosis77.9
>50 years of age at diagnosis* to 0.51)
<1 year symptom duration prior to diagnosis69.4
>1 year symptom duration prior to diagnosis* to 0.42)
Never smoked43.0
Smoker (current or ever) to 0.42)
Never had DMARD or anti-TNF16.2
History of DMARD use (ever)−0.01 to 0.52)
History of anti-TNF use (ever)23.80.630.154<0.01(0.32 to 0.93)
  • *Effect on HAQ is the difference from baseline, associated with the variable adjusted for calendar effect using a smoothing spline.

  • †Baseline is the estimated HAQ score for when all variables are zero, that is, male gender, ≤50 years of age, diagnosis in year of symptom, non-smoker, no history of DMARD or anti-TNF.

  • DMARD, disease modifying anti-rheumatic drug; TNF, tumour necrosis factor.