Table 1

Marker levels in severe active ANCA-associated vasculitis (screening) and remission among the patients who were in remission at month 6

MarkerScreening (n=137)Month 6 remission (n=137)Difference (n=137)p Value*Healthy controls (n=68)p Value**
Cytokines
 G-CSF (pg/ml)20.4 (8.01;45.9)10.5 (5.63;23.7)5.78 (−0.74;26.0)<0.0001*7.58 (4.89;12.7)<0.0001**
 GM-CSF (pg/ml)27.6 (2.28;269)1.17 (<0.98;4.99)16.8 (0.00;241)<0.0001*1.39 (<0.98;7.27)<0.0001**
 IFNγ (pg/ml)<0.49 (<0.49;2.01)<0.49 (<0.49;<0.49)0.00 (0.00;0.95)<0.0001*<0.49 (<0.49;<0.49)0.011**
 IL-6 (pg/ml)2.14 (<0.69;19.8)<0.49 (<0.49;0.77)1.36 (0.00;18.3)<0.0001*<0.49 (<0.49;<0.49)<0.0001**
 IL-15 (pg/ml)21.6 (7.65;109)5.69 (2.60;13.5)14.6 (1.65;92.4)<0.0001*2.87 (2.18;4.31)<0.0001**
 IL-18 (pg/ml)57.4 (37.2;101)51.9 (31.0;85.8)8.49 (−23.4;37.7)0.023*36.2 (20.1;60.8)<0.0001**
 Osteopontin (ng/ml)65.0 (38.8;101)54.4 (37.8;80.9)5.48 (−15.9;37.8)0.013*36.2 (29.5;42.4)<0.0001**
Chemokines
 BCA-1 (pg/ml)170 (74.2;489)32.0 (18.2;55.6)116 (27.6;416)<0.0001*29.6 (19.8;44.8)<0.0001**
 IL-8 (pg/ml)19.5 (7.33;51.2)7.09 (3.59;15.3)7.60 (−2.26;40.4)<0.0001*3.00 (1.30;5.19)<0.0001**
 IP-10 (pg/ml)11.1 (6.01;23.7)13.2 (7.68;25.0)−0.87 (−7.95;7.95)0.733.28 (2.19;5.30)<0.0001**
 RANTES (ng/ml)60.3 (33.4;107)52.3 (30.8;90.0)0.00 (−16.6;31.3)0.4358.3 (27.7;91.4)0.11
 TARC (pg/ml)520 (234;1535)655 (347;>2500)−62.7 (−439;92.4)0.0046*177 (115;367)<0.0001**
Soluble receptors
 IL-18BP (pg/ml)116 (21.6;768)14.6 (<6.11;55.1)87.7 (1.46;537)<0.0001*13.9 (6.11;46.5)<0.0001**
 sIL-2R (pg/ml)<2.44 (<2.44;153)<2.44 (<2.44;<2.44)0.00 (0.00;120)<0.0001*<2.44(<2.44;<2.44)0.0005**
 sIL-6R (ng/ml)27.4 (21.1;43.1)21.9 (15.4;33.0)4.27 (−3.12;12.5)0.0002*15.8 (11.7;20.0)<0.0001**
 sTNF-RII (pg/ml)2671 (1306;4855)2417 (1350;5808)122 (−2068;1606)0.86499 (295;687)<0.0001**
Tissue damage and repair
 ACE (ng/ml)105 (73.8;144)178 (130;252)−70.9 (−137; −24.6)<0.0001*96.7 (81.4;115)0.076
 bFGF (pg/ml)3.05 (<0.98;34.4)<0.98 (<0.98;9.77)0.00 (0.00;28.5)<0.0001*2.39 (<0.98;11.0)0.42
 KIM-1 (pg/ml)242 (73.4;744)45.6 (17.2;127)134 (27.1;691)<0.0001*19.8 (8.08;128)<0.0001**
 MMP-3 (ng/ml)96.6 (46.6;148)15.6 (11.8;29.1)79.1 (27.4;126)<0.0001*10.2 (7.02;15.5)<0.0001**
 NGFβ (pg/ml)9.11 (3.15;37.0)2.48 (1.25;4.32)5.11 (0.67;31.4)<0.0001*2.11 (0.77;4.53)<0.0001**
 PDGF-AB (pg/ml)4298 (1573;6585)3260 (879;5374)798 (−617;2980)0.0003*8877 (5812;11510)<0.0001**
 TIMP-1 (ng/ml)477 (302;862)166 (125;233)269 (67.1;638)<0.0001*117 (65.4;163)<0.0001**
Inflammation and vascular injury
 Clusterin (μg/ml)77.1 (65.3;89.3)73.0 (59.4;85.9)5.52 (−8.12;18.2)0.0079*71.9 (61.2;83.0)0.0085**
 CRP (mg/dl)1.2 (0.5;4.0)0.5 (0.3;1.2)0.7 (0.0;3.3)<0.0001*NDND
 ESR (mm/h)37 (16;60)14 (7;22)19 (2;39)<0.0001*NDND
 ICAM-1 (ng/ml)463 (307;933)537 (345;882)−61.3 (−198;103)0.004*281 (226;337)<0.0001**
 NGAL (ng/ml)271 (176;399)172 (129;237)80.3 (6.96 ;214)<0.0001*117 (92.4;150)<0.0001**
 PAI-1 (pg/ml)1491 (<977;5650)1202 (<977;4719)0.00 (−1449;2325)0.393307 (1083;7236)0.0008**
 VCAM-1 (ng/ml)133 (95.4;174)148 (108;224)−7.75 (−84.4;26.9)0.0035*139 (84.3;188)0.9
  • Values are median (IQR).

  • *p<0.05 by Wilcoxon signed rank test, after adjustment for multiple comparisons.

  • **p<0.05 by Wilcoxon rank sum test comparing screening to healthy controls, after adjustment for multiple comparisons.

  • BCA-1, CXCL13; bFGF, basic fibroblast growth factor; CRP, C-reactive protein; ESR, erythrocyte sedimentation rate; G-CSF, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor; GM-CSF, granulocyte–monocyte colony-stimulating factor; ICAM-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1; IFN, interferon; IL, interleukin; IL-8, CXCL8; IL-18BP, interleukin 18 binding protein; IP-10, CXCL10; KIM-1, kidney injury molecule-1; MMP-3, matrix metalloproteinase-3; NGAL, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin; NGFβ, nerve growth factor β; PAI-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1; PDGF-AB, platelet-derived growth factor, A and B subunits; RANTES, CCL5; sIL-2R, soluble IL 2 receptor; sIL-6R, soluble IL 6 receptor; sTNF-RII, soluble TNF receptor II; TARC, CCL17; TIMP-1, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1; VCAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1.