Table 5

Adjusted OR with 95% CI for associations between rheumatoid arthritis and history of periodontitis based on sex of the patient

FemaleMaleTotal
Interval between the last periodontitis visit and the index date
 No periodontitis1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
 <3 Months1.72 (1.55 to 1.91)1.38 (1.12 to 1.69)1.64 (1.49 to 1.79)
 3–6 Months1.25 (1.12 to 1.40)1.25 (1.02 to 1.53)1.25 (1.13 to 1.38)
 6 Months–1 year1.15 (1.05 to 1.26)1.15 (0.98 to 1.34)1.15 (1.06 to 1.24)
 1–3 Years1.09 (1.02 to 1.15)1.16 (1.05 to 1.29)1.10 (1.05 to 1.16)
 >3 Years1.13 (1.06 to 1.19)1.11 (1.00 to 1.23)1.12 (1.07 to 1.18)
Number of visits for periodontitis
 No periodontitis1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
 1–21.04 (0.98 to 1.11)1.08 (0.96 to 1.21)1.12 (1.06 to 1.17)
 3–41.08 (1.00 to 1.16)1.18 (1.03 to 1.35)1.17 (1.10 to 1.24)
 5–71.10 (1.02 to 1.19)1.10 (0.95 to 1.26)1.17 (1.10 to 1.25)
 ≥81.13 (1.05 to 1.22)1.08 (0.95 to 1.22)1.22 (1.15 to 1.30)
Cumulative cost of periodontitis-related visits (US$)
 No periodontitis1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
 0–481.14 (1.07 to 1.22)1.15 (1.01 to 1.31)1.13 (1.07 to 1.19)
 49–981.16 (1.08 to 1.24)1.16 (0.95 to 1.24)1.14 (1.08 to 1.21)
 99–2111.15 (1.07 to 1.24)1.21 (1.07 to 1.37)1.15 (1.09 to 1.22)
 >2111.27 (1.19 to 1.36)1.09 (0.97 to 1.24)1.22 (1.15 to 1.29)
Periodontal surgery
 No periodontitis1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
 No1.15 (1.11 to 1.20)1.16 (1.08 to 1.25)1.15 (1.11 to 1.20)
 Yes1.29 (1.14 to 1.46)1.18 (0.94 to 1.49)1.26 (1.13 to 1.41)
Antibiotic treatment
 No periodontitis1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
 No1.15 (1.10 to 1.21)1.21 (1.11 to 1.33)1.16 (1.11 to 1.21)
 Yes1.17 (1.11 to 1.24)1.12 (1.02 to 1.22)1.16 (1.11 to 1.21)
  • Matched variables include age group, sex and year of index date. Adjusted variables include geographical region and pre-existing diseases, including diabetes mellitus requiring antidiabetic drugs and Sjögren's syndrome with a certificate of catastrophic illness.