Table 3

Marker levels in patients with newly diagnosed or relapsing ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV), and in patients treated or not treated with glucocorticoids at the time of screening

Newly diagnosed or relapsing AAVGlucocorticoid treatment at screening
MarkerRelapsing (n=96)New (n=90)p ValueYes (n=92)No (n=94)p Value
Cytokines
 G-CSF23.4 (11.5;56.3)17.2 (6.60;41.2)0.03221.5 (10.2;47.6)22.7 (8.79;49.2)0.81
 GM-CSF39.0 (2.78;243)18.1 (1.72;269)0.426.7 (1.92;236)23.3 (2.66;269)0.85
 IFNγ<0.49 (<0.49;2.06)<0.49 (<0.49;2.11)0.87<0.49 (<0.49;0.79)<0.49 (<0.49;3.56)0.4
 IL-62.52 (0.53;19.9)1.93 (0.69;20.0)0.922.04 (<0.49;20.4)2.12 (0.63;19.8)0.87
 IL-1530.2 (10.4;110)17.9 (7.23;99.3)0.3126.8 (9.11;102)20.6 (8.28;116)0.4
 IL-1858.0 (34.5;113)52.1 (30.7;101)0.3156.5 (38.6;145)56.6 (30.7;99.4)0.22
 Osteopontin49.0 (34.0;75.5)76.5 (45.7;116)0.0004*50.7 (32.2;81.4)68.9 (46.3;107)0.0021
Chemokines
 BCA-1125 (53.4;320)232 (84.5;771)0.011*153 (62.9;474)199 (74.5;603)0.65
 IL-819.1 (7.11;44.8)17.9 (5.71;53.3)0.9417.4 (5.82;44.8)19.9 (7.18;51.2)0.48
 IP-1012.4 (6.55;23.2)9.92 (5.21;23.4)0.5413.3 (6.63;21.8)9.85 (5.09;23.7)0.35
 RANTES59.2 (34.0;113)64.2 (36.0;93.4)0.6656.5 (35.4;89.5)74.7 (36.5;117)0.19
 TARC869 (238;1901)444 (227;999)0.042504 (187;1582)595 (287;1841)0.23
Soluble receptors
 IL-18BP160 (22.7;828)80.3 (20.2;969)0.73119 (14.5;834)134 (22.6;825)0.74
 sIL-2Rα<2.44 (<2.44;206)<2.44 (<2.44;250)0.98<2.44 (<2.44;206)<2.44 (<2.44;250)0.91
 sIL-6R25.6 (19.5;33.0)29.0 (22.7;44.8)0.02126.4 (20.2;37.0)26.5 (21.5;43.3)0.71
 sTNF-RII1912 (1167;3885)3110 (1646;5392)0.012*2039 (1123;4532)2886 (1481;4661)0.054
Tissue damage and repair
 ACE113 (76.2;166)106 (70.1;145)0.38113 (73.2;156)105 (72.0;150)0.96
 bFGF3.86 (<0.98;50.6)2.86 (<0.98;37.4)0.543.20 (<0.98;55.1)2.86 (<0.98;37.4)0.38
 KIM-1190 (49.5;709)274 (89.6;1267)0.08157 (48.5;698)298 (113;1550)0.011
 MMP383.3 (48.0;156)101 (47.1;146)0.7794.6 (54.8;160)88.7 (37.0;136)0.077
 NGFβ9.57 (4.08;43.9)6.68 (2.05;35.6)0.179.19 (3.69;40.6)8.85 (2.61;37.9)0.76
 PDGF-AB2769 (968;5002)4682 (2322;7392)0.0072*3541 (1261;5940)4136 (1440;7338)0.2
 TIMP-1389 (236;673)525 (311;1149)0.01*473 (290;730)430 (253;1055)0.78
Inflammation and vascular injury
 Clusterin76.7 (65.3;87.0)80.9 (66.4;96.1)0.2479.0 (66.5;94.8)75.6 (65.7;88.8)0.17
 CRP0.8 (0.39;2.45)1.96 (0.6;6.3)0.0026*0.9 (0.3;2.3)1.9 (0.6;4.9)0.003
 ESR29 (13;52)49 (26;80)0.0002*29 (13;53)48 (25;70)0.005
 ICAM-1413 (292;775)555 (346;1005)0.02450 (305;974)484 (317;819)0.96
 NGAL223 (153;342)291 (222;431)0.0057*224 (161;340)283 (204;428)0.045
 PAI-11089 (<977;4761)1002 (<977;6481)0.771887 (<977;5817)<977 (<977;4509)0.28
 VCAM-1120 (87.8;168)144 (106;177)0.026127 (95.3;179)138 (95.5;77.9)0.52
  • Values are median (IQR). For units, see table 1.

  • *p<0.05 comparing newly diagnosed with relapsing AAV, still significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. No marker met this standard comparing subjects treated or not treated with glucocorticoids, although several unadjusted p values were<0.05.

  • BCA-1, CXCL13; bFGF, basic fibroblast growth factor; CRP, C-reactive protein; ESR, erythrocyte sedimentation rate; G-CSF, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor; GM-CSF, granulocyte–monocyte colony-stimulating factor; ICAM-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1; IFN, interferon; IL, interleukin; IL-8, CXCL8; IL-18BP, interleukin 18 binding protein; IP-10, CXCL10; KIM-1, kidney injury molecule-1; MMP-3, matrix metalloproteinase-3; NGAL, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin; NGFβ, nerve growth factor β; PAI-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1; PDGF-AB, platelet-derived growth factor, A and B subunits; RANTES, CCL5; sIL-2R, soluble IL 2 receptor; sIL-6R, soluble IL 6 receptor; sTNF-RII, soluble TNF receptor II; TARC, CCL17; TIMP-1, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1; VCAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1.