Table 1

Berlin MRI scores applied in this study21 24

Grade 0Grade 1Grade 2Grade 3
Sacroiliac joints
 Active inflammation (BMO of quadrant area)AbsentUp to 33% of the quadrant area33–66%>66%
 Erosions (per quadrant)AbsentMinor (one to two erosions)Moderate (three to five single erosions)Multiple (confluent erosions)
 Fatty bone marrow deposition (FMD) per quadrantAbsentPresent
 Sclerosis (per joint)AbsentPresent
 Ankylosis (per joint)AbsentPresent
Spine
 Active Inflammation (BMO of VU area)Absent<25% of VU area25–50%>50%
 Erosions (% of the bone surface per VU)AbsentMinor (one to two erosions)Moderate (three to five single erosions)Multiple (confluent erosions)
 Fatty bone marrow deposition (FMD) per VUAbsent<25%25–50%>50%
 Bone proliferation (per VU)AbsentSyndesmophytes without bridgingBridging syndesmophytesTransdiscal ankylosis
 Active inflammation of the posterior segments (per VU)AbsentMinor inflammationSevere inflammation
Non-axial locations
 Enthesitis/osteitis (per location)*AbsentMinorModerate to severe
 Synovitis/effusion (per joint)*Absence of joint effusionSlightly increased fluid collectionModerate to severe fluid collection
 Erosions (per joint)*AbsentSuspicion of erosionDefinite evidence of erosion
  • *See text for list of entheseal locations and scored joints.

  • BMO, bone marrow oedema; VU, vertebral unit.