Table 1

Characteristics of patients with SLE and healthy controls

CharacteristicSLE patientsHealthy controls
Age, mean (range)36 (20–69)32 (18–71)
Sex, n (%)
 Female71 (89.9)20 (74.1)
 Male8 (10.1)7 (25.9)
Ethnicity, n (%)
 Caucasian71 (89.9)27 (100)
 Asian8 (10.1)0
 Afro-American0 (0)0
ACR criteria, mean (range)6.2 (4–9)NA
Disease duration, mean (range)9.6 (0–29)NA
mSLEDAI-2K, mean (range)4.2 (0–17)NA
BILAG-2004, mean (range)8.6 (0–39)NA
Medication for SLE activity, mean (range)
 Prednisolone (mg/day) (n=67)8.8
 Hydroxychloroquine (mg/day) (n=43)253.5
 Azathioprine (mg/day) (n=17)92.7
 Mycophenolate mofetil (mg/day) (n=12)1890
 Cyclophosphamide (mg/month) (n=14)796.4
 Methotrexate (mg/week) (n=5)14.5
  • ACR, American College of Rheumatology; BILAG-2004, British Isles Lupus Assessment Group 2004 Index; mSLEDAI-2K, modified SLE Disease Activity Index 2000; NA, not applicable; SLE, systemic lupus erythematosus.