Table 2

Descriptive and incremental health outcomes over 12 months for the base-case and complete case analyses. Values are mean (SD) scores unless stated otherwise*

Health outcomesInterventionControl groupMean difference (95% CI)
Base-case (imputed) analysis
Low-riskn=148n=3
Baseline EQ-5D0.725 (0.19)0.733 (0.15)−0.008 (−0.05 to 0.04)
4-month EQ-5D0.799 (0.21)0.821 (0.18)−0.022 (−0.07 to 0.03)
12-month EQ-5D0.787 (0.20)0.773 (0.24)0.014 (−0.05 to 0.08)
QALYs over 12 months−0.001 (−0.04 to 0.03)
p=0.94 (2 dp)
Medium-riskn=263n=131
Baseline EQ-5D0.540 (0.27)0.573 (0.27)−0.033 (−0.12 to 0.06)
4-month EQ-5D0.702 (0.28)0.674 (0.28)0.028 (−0.03 to 0.09)
12-month EQ-5D0.687 (0.32)0.635 (0.31)0.052 (−0.01 to 0.12)
QALYs over 12 months0.044 (0.00 to 0.09)§
p=0.04 (2 dp)
High-riskn=157n=79
Baseline EQ-5D0.325 (0.33)0.252 (0.35)0.073 (−0.02 to 0.16)
4-month EQ-5D0.585 (0.35)0.474 (0.38)0.111 (0.02 to 0.20)
12-month EQ-5D0.541 (0.37)0.458 (0.38)0.083 (−0.01 to 0.18)
QALYs over 12 months0.057 (−0.01 to 0.12)
p=0.08 (2 dp)
Complete-case analysis
Low-risk subgroup (n=115 in total)−0.007 (−0.04 to 0.03)
p=0.70 (2 dp)
Medium-risk subgroup (n=220 in total)0.022 (−0.02 to 0.07)
p=0.35 (2 dp)
High-risk subgroup (n=123 in total)0.077 (−0.00 to 0.16)
p=0.06 (2 dp)
  • * QALYs, quality-adjusted life years, dp, decimal places.

  • Difference=targeted intervention – control group. Reported CIs were generated using conventional parametric methods.

  • Incremental QALY estimates following multiple regression-based adjustment for age, gender, duration of pain at baseline, and baseline scores on the RMDQ and EQ-5D. For the complete case analysis, only the incremental QALY estimate is provided.

  • § The true value of ‘0.00’ is positive; the figure reported is rounded to 2 dp.

  • The true value of ‘0.00’ is negative; the figure reported is rounded to 2 dp.