Health outcomes | Intervention | Control group | Mean difference^{†} (95% CI) |
---|---|---|---|

Base-case (imputed) analysis | |||

Low-risk | n=148 | n=3 | |

Baseline EQ-5D | 0.725 (0.19) | 0.733 (0.15) | −0.008 (−0.05 to 0.04) |

4-month EQ-5D | 0.799 (0.21) | 0.821 (0.18) | −0.022 (−0.07 to 0.03) |

12-month EQ-5D | 0.787 (0.20) | 0.773 (0.24) | 0.014 (−0.05 to 0.08) |

QALYs over 12 months^{‡} | – | – | −0.001 (−0.04 to 0.03) |

p=0.94 (2 dp) | |||

Medium-risk | n=263 | n=131 | |

Baseline EQ-5D | 0.540 (0.27) | 0.573 (0.27) | −0.033 (−0.12 to 0.06) |

4-month EQ-5D | 0.702 (0.28) | 0.674 (0.28) | 0.028 (−0.03 to 0.09) |

12-month EQ-5D | 0.687 (0.32) | 0.635 (0.31) | 0.052 (−0.01 to 0.12) |

QALYs over 12 months^{‡} | – | – | 0.044 (0.00 to 0.09)^{§} |

p=0.04 (2 dp) | |||

High-risk | n=157 | n=79 | |

Baseline EQ-5D | 0.325 (0.33) | 0.252 (0.35) | 0.073 (−0.02 to 0.16) |

4-month EQ-5D | 0.585 (0.35) | 0.474 (0.38) | 0.111 (0.02 to 0.20) |

12-month EQ-5D | 0.541 (0.37) | 0.458 (0.38) | 0.083 (−0.01 to 0.18) |

QALYs over 12 months^{‡} | – | – | 0.057 (−0.01 to 0.12) |

p=0.08 (2 dp) | |||

Complete-case analysis^{‡} | |||

Low-risk subgroup (n=115 in total) | – | – | −0.007 (−0.04 to 0.03) |

p=0.70 (2 dp) | |||

Medium-risk subgroup (n=220 in total) | – | – | 0.022 (−0.02 to 0.07) |

p=0.35 (2 dp) | |||

High-risk subgroup (n=123 in total) | – | – | 0.077 (−0.00 to 0.16)^{¶} |

p=0.06 (2 dp) |

↵* QALYs, quality-adjusted life years, dp, decimal places.

↵† Difference=targeted intervention – control group. Reported CIs were generated using conventional parametric methods.

‡ Incremental QALY estimates following multiple regression-based adjustment for age, gender, duration of pain at baseline, and baseline scores on the RMDQ and EQ-5D. For the complete case analysis, only the incremental QALY estimate is provided.

↵§ The true value of ‘0.00’ is positive; the figure reported is rounded to 2 dp.

↵¶ The true value of ‘0.00’ is negative; the figure reported is rounded to 2 dp.