Table 3

Description of work-related outcomes for participants in paid employment (work status, absence and indirect cost estimates), by treatment and risk group. Values are numbers (percentages) unless stated otherwise*

InterventionControl group
Low-risk: working in paid employment at baseline112 of 14850 of 73
Low-risk: working in paid employment at 12 months65 of 9729 of 47
Doing usual job64 (98)27 (96)
Working fewer hours0 (0)0 (0)
Doing lighter duties0 (0)0 (0)
On paid/unpaid sick leave1 (2)1 (4)
Reported time off work due to low back pain8 (12)5 (17)
Mean (SD) number of days absence0.37 (1.2)3.00 (11.9)
Mean (SD) cost (£) of back pain-related work absence32 (109.5)240 (1045.3)
Medium-risk: working in paid employment at baseline158 of 26383 of 131
Medium-risk: working in paid employment at 12 months81 of 17548 of 87
Doing usual job72 (89)40 (83)
Working fewer hours3 (4)3 (6)
Doing lighter duties3 (4)1 (2)
On paid/unpaid sick leave3 (4)4 (8)
Reported time off work due to low back pain22 (27)20 (42)
Mean (SD) number of days absence4.13 (15.9)18.44 (47.2)
Mean (SD) cost (£) of back pain-related work absence402 (1682.6)1759 (4651.3)
High-risk: working in paid employment at baseline80 of 15741 of 79
High-risk: working in paid employment at 12 months54 of 11421 of 47
Doing usual job46 (88)20 (95)
Working fewer hours3 (6)0 (0)
Doing lighter duties1 (2)0 (0)
On paid/unpaid sick leave2 (4)1 (5)
Reported time off work due to low back pain16 (30)8 (38)
Mean (SD) number of days absence9.85 (35.4)10.57 (18.2)
Mean (SD) cost (£) of back pain-related work absence990 (3419.5)850 (1519.1)
  • * Percentages relate to the number of employed participants, specific to the number of valid 12-month questionnaire responses within each risk group. Categories are not mutually exclusive. The estimation of indirect costs focused on the subsample of respondents in paid employment at 12 months (298/567).