Table 4

Phase-specific effects of each intervention*

Phase 1Phase 2Both phases
TreatmentMean change (SD)Estimated difference (SE)Mean change (SD)Estimated difference (SE)Mean change (SD)Estimated difference (SE)Carryover effect test
WOMAC PainRealignment−2.2 (3.3)−1.9 (1.01); p=0.068−1.7 (3.8)−1.8 (0.9); p=0.064−2.0 (3.5)−1.8 (0.6); p=0.0040.10 (1.5); p=0.947
Placebo−0.3 (4.3)0.03 (3.2)−0.1 (3.7)
WOMAC FunctionRealignment−5.1 (12.1)−3.5 (3.4); p=0.296−4.6 (9.6)−2.6 (2.4); p=0.290−4.9 (10.9)−2.9 (1.8); p=0.121−0.99 (4.3); p=0.82
Placebo−2.0 (8.4)−1.6 (13.1)−1.8 (10.8)
  • * Incorporates the carryover effect test and the estimated treatment effect from model 2 (without carryover effect).

  • WOMAC, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index.