Table 3

Risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality according to the duration of physician-diagnosed gout at follow-up I interview, the Singapore Chinese Health Study (1999–2009)

HR (95% CI)
CasesModel 1*Model 2
Deaths from all causes
 No gout63291.001.00
 0–9 Years of gout2261.19 (1.04 to 1.36)1.17 (1.02 to 1.34)
 10+ Years of gout1051.33 (1.10 to 1.62)1.22 (1.00 to 1.48)
 p Value for trend0.00010.004
All cardiovascular deaths
 No gout20641.001.00
 0–9 Years of gout891.41 (1.14 to 1.74)1.28 (1.04 to 1.59)
 10+ Years of gout451.70 (1.26 to 2.29)1.41 (1.05 to 1.90)
 p Value for trend<0.00010.002
CHD deaths
 No gout12131.001.00
 0–9 Years of gout581.50 (1.15 to 1.96)1.40 (1.07 to 1.82)
 10+ Years of gout271.64 (1.12 to 2.41)1.34 (0.91 to 1.97)
 p Value for trend0.00020.010
  • * Model 1, adjusted for age at follow-up I, years between baseline and follow-up I, body mass index group (<20, 20–<24, 24–<28, 28+), gender, dialect group (Hokkien, Cantonese), education (non-formal education, primary school, secondary school or higher), alcohol drinking (none/monthly, weekly, daily), moderate physical activity (none, 0.5–3 h/week, 4+ h/week), cigarette smoking (never, former, current), dietary saturated fat density (g/day, quartiles), dietary cholesterol density (mg/day, quartiles).

  • Model 2, further adjusted for physician-diagnosed hypertension and diabetes mellitus reported at baseline or follow-up I interview.