Table 4

Baseline predictors of serum creatinine (log) and proteinuria (square root) at last follow-up

Univariate analysisMultivariate analysis
B (95% CI)p ValueB (95% CI)p Value
Serum creatinine at last follow-up
 Treatment (if AZA/MP)0.034 (−0.069 to 0.137)0.509
 Gender (if male)0.279 (0.146 to 0.412)0.0000.230 (0.121 to 0.339)0.000
 Caucasian (if no)0.141 (0.027 to 0.255)0.0160.142 (0.053 to 0.231)0.002
 Age (years)0.008 (0.004 to 0.012)0.0000.007 (0.004 to 0.011)0.000
 Duration of SLE (years)0.005 (−0.003 to 0.013)0.251
 LN presenting symptom (if yes)−0.043 (−0.146 to 0.059)0.403
 Hypertension (if present)0.060 (−0.072 to 0.193)0.369
 C3 (% of lowest normal)§0.000 (−0.002 to 0.002)0.912
 C4 (% of lowest normal)§−0.001 (−0.002 to 0.001)0.298
 Anti-dsDNA (if positive)0.059 (−0.107 to 0.225)0.482
 Serum creatinine§0.002 (0.001 to 0.002)0.0000.001 (0.000 to 0.002)0.001
 Proteinuria§−0.013 (−0.031 to 0.005)0.165*
 CI§0.053 (0.014 to 0.092)0.009*
 AI§−0.007 (−0.021 to 0.007)0.307
Proteinuria at last follow-up
 Treatment (if AZA/MP)−0.012 (−0.232 to 0.207)0.912
 Gender (if male)0.133 (−0.177 to 0.443)0.397
 Caucasian (if no)0.350 (0.110 to 0.590)0.0050.359 (0.139 to 0.580)0.002
 Age (yrs)−0.005 (−0.014 to 0.005)0.332
 Duration of SLE (years)0.003 (−0.015 to 0.021)0.768
 LN presenting symptom (if yes)−0.107 (−0.325 to 0.112)0.333
 Hypertension (if present)0.042 (−0.242 to 0.325)0.771
 C3 (% of lowest normal)§0.002 (−0.002 to 0.006)0.362
 C4 (% of lowest normal)§0.001 (−0.001 to 0.002)0.299
 Anti-dsDNA (if positive)0.118 (−0.238 to 0.474)0.512
 Serum creatinine§0.001 (0.000 to 0.003)0.131*
 Proteinuria§−0.004 (−0.043 to 0.034)0.823
 CI§0.141 (0.059 to 0.222)0.0010.118 (0.040 to 0.195)0.003
 AI§−0.035 (−0.063 to −0.007)0.016−0.030 (−0.056 to −0.004)0.026
  • B refers to the influence on serum creatinine and proteinuria at last follow-up.

  • * The variable was not selected during multivariate linear regression analysis.

  • The variable was not tested in multivariate linear regression analysis because of a p value >0.2 in univariate linear regression analysis.

  • per year.

  • § per 1 grade or 1 point.

  • AI, activity index; Anti-dsDNA, antidouble-stranded DNA antibodies; AZA/MP, azathioprine/methylprednisolone; C3, complement factor 3; C4, complement factor 4; CI, chronicity index; LN, lupus nephritis; SLE, systemic lupus erythematosus; B, regression coefficient.