Table 2

Mortality risk by history of physician-diagnosed gout in the Singapore Chinese Health Study (1999–2009)

Models 1* and 2 (n=52 322)Model 3 (n=47 035)
No of deathsHR (95% CI)No of deaths
No goutGoutModel 1Model 2No goutGoutHR (95% CI)
Deaths from all causes
 All63293311.23 (1.10 to 1.38)1.18 (1.06 to 1.32)50052131.11 (0.97 to 1.28)
 Men34622391.16 (1.02 to 1.33)1.12 (0.98 to 1.28)27221501.04 (0.88 to 1.23)
 Women2867921.42 (1.15 to 1.75)1.36 (1.10 to 1.67)2283631.30 (1.01 to 1.67)
All cardiovascular deaths
 All20631341.49 (1.25 to 1.78)1.32 (1.11 to 1.58)1451751.23 (0.97 to 1.56)
 Men1109981.40 (1.14 to 1.73)1.23 (1.00 to 1.52)757521.10 (0.82 to 1.46)
 Women954361.70 (1.22 to 2.38)1.52 (1.08 to 2.12)694231.51 (1.00 to 2.30)
CHD deaths
 All1213851.54 (1.23 to 1.93)1.38 (1.10 to 1.73)808471.35 (1.00 to 1.82)
 Men686621.41 (1.0 8 to 1.83)1.26 (1.00 to 1.64)439321.16 (0.81 to 1.67)
 Women527231.92 (1.26 to 2.92)1.71 (1.12 to 2.60)369151.81 (1.07 to 3.05)
Fatal stroke
 All526261.28 (0.86 to 1.90)1.12 (0.75 to 1.67)384151.06 (0.63 to 1.78)
 Men245161.06 (0.64 to 1.77)0.93 (0.55 to 1.54)17790.85 (0.43 to 1.68)
 Women281101.71 (0.90 to 3.23)1.52 (0.80 to 2.86)20761.45 (0.64 to 3.29)
Fatal kidney disease
 All98237.21 (4.48 to 11.60)5.81 (3.61 to 9.37)73124.35 (2.29 to 8.24)
 Men3294.45 (2.08 to 9.53)3.89 (1.80 to 8.40)2474.76 (1.96 to 11.58)
 Women661410.02 (5.55 to 18.11)7.72 (4.27 to 13.95)4953.78 (1.48 to 9.66)
  • All risk estimates are relative to those without a history of gout.

  • * Model 1, adjusted for age at follow-up 1, years between baseline and follow-up 1, body mass index group (<20, 20–<24, 24–<28, 28+), gender, dialect group (Hokkien, Cantonese), education (non-formal education, primary school, secondary school or higher), alcohol drinking (none/monthly, weekly, daily), moderate physical activity (no, 0.5–3 h/week, 4+ h/week), cigarette smoking (never, former, current), dietary saturated fat density (g/day, quartiles), dietary cholesterol density (mg/day, quartiles).

  • Model 2, further adjusted for physician-diagnosed hypertension and diabetes mellitus reported at baseline or follow-up I interview.

  • Model 3 only includes subjects without a history of stroke or coronary heart disease (CHD) reported at baseline or follow-up I interview