Table 2

Risk of gastrointestinal hospitalisation (ulceration, perforation or bleeding in the upper or lower gastrointestinal tract) among older patients who received prescriptions for paracetamol, traditional NSAID or the combination of paracetamol and a traditional NSAID, either with or without a PPI

Non-users of PPIUsers of PPI
Paracetamol ≤3 g/dayReference category (1.00)0.95 (0.81 to 1.11)
Paracetamol >3 g/day1.20 (1.03 to 1.40)1.16 (0.94 to 1.43)
Paracetamol and traditional NSAID2.55 (1.93 to 3.28)2.15 (1.35 to 3.40)
Traditional NSAID1.63 (1.44 to 1.85)1.07 (0.82 to 1.39)
  • Data are the results of a population-based retrospective cohort study50 including 644 183 older patients (>65 years) who filled a prescription from either of these medications between 1998 and 2004. Follow-up ended at the first date of a gastrointestinal hospitalisation, death or the end of the study period. Data are HR. Numbers in brackets are 95% CI.

  • NSAID, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug; PPI, proton pump inhibitor.