Table 2

Risk factors and clinical variables in GC+ and GC− patients

Risk factors/clinical variables*GC+ (n/% of available or mean (SD))GC− (n/% of available or mean (SD))p Value
Leucopaenia (<4000/mm3)13/37%17/17%0.019
CD4 T lymphocytopaenia8/26%11/14%0.16
Systemic disease§30/74%57/51%0.007
Total n involved organ systems2.56 (1.62)1.58 (1.37)<0.001
Anti-Ro/SSA antibodies24/77%48/54%0.022
Anti-La/SSB antibodies19/61%32/36%0.014
IgG (g/l)**18.3 (6.46)15.0 (5.17)0.003
C4 (g/l)**0.22 (0.087)0.26 (0.083)0.015
C3 (g/l)**0.98 (0.26)1.05 (0.25)0.17
  • * Ever present during disease course if not indicated otherwise.

  • Pearson χ2 or Fisher's exact test as applicable.

  • CD4 T lymphocytopaenia: either CD4 T cells less than 300 cells/ml or CD4 T cells less than 30% of total lymphocyte count or low CD4/CD8 ratio: 0.8 or less.

  • § Non-exocrine disease manifestations during disease course including the European League Against Rheumatism Sjögren's Syndrome disease activity index (ESSDAI) domains12 but not fatigue, myalgia or arthralgia.

  • According to ESSDAI domains.12

  • ** First ever assessment.

  • ANA, antinuclear antibody; GC, germinal centre; RF, rheumatoid factor.