Table 2

Unadjusted and adjusted Cox regression models assessing the effects of the different GC exposure measures on the risk of CVA

ModelGC exposure (unit)Univariate RR (95% CI)p ValueMultivariate* HR (95% CI)p Value
1Current use (yes/no)1.68 (1.06 to 2.68)0.031.41 (0.84 to 2.37)NS
2Current mean daily dose (5 mg)1.11 (0.99 to 1.23)NS1.07 (0.94 to 1.21)NS
3Total cumulative duration of use (year)1.18 (1.02 to 1.35)<0.021.11 (0.94 to 1.32)NS
4Total past cumulative dose (1 g)1.06 (1.02 to 1.10)<0.0011.04 (0.99 to 1.08)NS
5Current daily dose (5 mg) +cumulative duration (year)1.08 (0.95 to 1.23)1.15 (0.99 to 1.29)NSNS1.05 (0.92 to 1.20)1.10 (0.92 to 1.31)NSNS
  • Model 1 includes a binary (yes/no) time-dependent representation of the current use. Model 2 includes a continuous time-dependent representation of the current daily dose. Model 3 includes a continuous time-dependent representation of cumulative duration. Model 4 includes a continuous time-dependent representation of cumulative dose. Model 5 includes both time-dependent variables for cumulative duration of use and current dose.

  • * Adjusted for propensity score, unbalanced covariates (age, gender, hypertension, statins, diabetes, angina, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, other cardiovascular drugs use, Charlson index, having seen a rheumatologist for rheumatoid arthritis, number of visits to a doctor per year), current use of COX-2 inhibitors, methotrexate and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

  • CVA, cerebrovascular accidents; GC, glucocorticoids; NS, not significant.