Table 1

Multivariable Cox proportional hazard model: time-to-lupus nephritis

VariableHR95% CIp Value
Age0.970.94 to 0.990.0329
Gender1.040.41 to 2.690.9275
Ethnicity
 Hispanic2.321.03 to 5.250.0430
 African-American2.571.26 to 5.260.0097
 CaucasianReference group
Malar rash1.000.53 to 1.910.9897
Discoid rash0.980.46 to 2.090.9613
Photosensitivity2.101.09 to 4.010.0251
Ulcers1.540.87 to 2.730.1376
Arthritis1.280.56 to 2.910.5615
Serositis2.001.09 to 3.670.0250
Neurological involvement0.730.31 to 1.720.4648
Haematological1.900.88 to 4.110.1034
Immunological5.562.12 to 14.600.0005
Antinuclear antibody0.380.13 to 1.130.0815
Hydroxychloroquine1.050.55 to 2.000.8943