Table 3

Semiquantitative scores (0–4) for phenotypic and vascular markers as well as adhesion molecules in synovial tissue of IgM-RF-positive and/or ACPA-positive individuals without arthritis and healthy controls

IgM-RF- and/or ACPA-positive individualsHealthy controlsp Value
CD68 intimal macrophages1.0 (0.0–3.0)1.0 (0.0–3.0)0.08
CD68 sublining macrophages1.0 (0.0–4.0)1.5 (0–3.5)0.29
CD3 T cells1.0 (0.0–4.0)0.5 (0.0–3.0)0.40
CD22 B cells0.0 (0.0–4.0)0.0 (0.0–2.0)0.35
CD138 plasma cells0.0 (0.0–4.0)0.0 (0.0–2.0)0.36
CD55 fibroblast-like synoviocytes1.5 (1.0–2.0)2 (0.5–3.0)0.04
vWF1.0 (0.0–2.5)2.0 (0.0–3.5)0.21
E-selectin1.0 (0.0–2.0)2.0 (0.0–3.0)0.09
ICAM1.0 (0.0–4.0)1.0 (0.0–4.0)0.24
VCAM1.0 (0.0–4.0)1.0 (0.0–2.0)0.36
  • Values are shown as median (min-max).

  • χ2 test was used to compare both groups. p Value of <0.05 was considered significant (bold).

  • No difference was seen between the healthy controls and the autoantibody-positive subjects, including the four autoantibody-positive individuals who developed arthritis after follow-up.

  • ACPA, anticitrullinated peptide antibody; ICAM, intercellular adhesion molecule; IgM-RF, IgM rheumatoid factor; VCAM, vascular cell adhesion molecule; vWF, von Willebrand factor.