Table 2

Clinical presentation of cases of OI that occurred between February 2004 and January 2007 in patients receiving, or who had received, treatment with anti-TNF agents in France

Type of OINPathogenMedian age, years (Q1–Q3)Underlying diseaseLocalisationAdmissionto intensive care unitLost to follow-upCuredDeath
BacteriaListeriosis4Listeria monocytogenes65.0(57.0–72.5)RA: 41 Colitis +bacteraemia2121
2 Pneumonia +bacteraemia
1 Arthritis left shoulder
Nocardiosis41 Nocardia transvalensis65.0(47.0–71.0)RA: 3SpA: 12 Pneumonia1030
2 N farcinica1 Disseminated form (lung-sinus, arthritis left prosthesis knee, lymph node, bacteraemia)
1 N nova1 Subcutaneous lesion
Non-tuberculous mycobacteria4Mycobacterium avium61.5(50.5–67.0)RA: 41 Pneumonia0031
M terrae1 Tenosynovitis
M chelonae1 Cutaneous lesion
M marinum1 Lymphangitis
1 Cutaneous lesion
Salmonellosis31 Salmonella enteritidis62.0(59.0–73.0)RA: 31 Gastroenteritis+bacteraemia2030
1 S dublin1 Arthritis right shoulder +bacteraemia
1 S enterica haddar1 Angiocholitis +bacteraemia
VirusHerpes zoster8VZV46.5(42.0–65.5)Crohn: 15 Multimetameric zoster0070
RA: 61 Meningo encephalitis
SpA: 13 Ophthalmic zoster
Varicella3VZV38.0(29.0–38.0)Crohn: 23 Extensive cutaneous haemorrhagic forms with visceral involvement (1 hepatitis and radiculitis, 1 pancreatitis, hepatitis and myocarditis, 1 hepatitis)1030
Psoriasis: 1
Extensive herpes simplex infection3HSV45.0(29.0–55.0)SpA: 13 Extensive cutaneous lesions1030
RA: 1
Ulcerous colitis: 1
Disseminated CMV infection4CMV39.0(25.5–50.5)Crohn: 31 Disseminated (pneumonia, purpura, arthralgia)1130
RA: 11 Disseminated (rectocolitis, retinitis)
1 Disseminated (lung-liver-spleen-colitis)
1 Fever and rash
FungiPneumocystosis5Pneumocystis jiroveci51.0(50.0–63.0)Crohn: 15 Interstitial pneumonia2041
RA: 2
Polyarteritis nodosa: 1
Mesenteric fibrosis: 1
Aspergillosis32 Aspergillus fumigatus 1 unknown58.0(13.0–69.0)Crohn: 11 Extensive sinusitis1011
RA: 11 Colitis
Pyoderma gangrenosum:11 Pneumonia
Cryptococcosis2Cryptococcus neoformans51.0(47.0–55.0)RA: 11 Arthritis left knee and fungaemia0110
Sarcoidosis: 11 Cutaneous lesion with lymph nodes
ParasitesLeishmaniasis21 Leishmania infantum29.0(8.0–50.0)RA: 11 Disseminated form (spleen/bone marrow)0020
1 L tropica L majorJuvenile arthritis: 11 Disseminated cutaneous form
  • CMV, cytomegalovirus; HSV, herpes simplex virus; OI, opportunistic infection; RA, rheumatoid arthritis; SpA, spondyloarthritis; TNF, tumour necrosis factor; VZV, Varicella zoster virus.