Table 2

Associations of inflammatory measures and lipid measures with cardiovascular outcomes and mortality*†

Outcome measureCVD (HR (95% CI))Heart failure (HR (95% CI))Mortality (HR (95% CI))
Inflammatory measures
 ESR (mm/h)1.20 (1.11 to 1.31)1.23 (1.12 to 1.35)1.22 (1.14 to 1.31)
 CRP (mg/l)1.10 (0.99 to 1.22)1.25 (1.06 to 1.48)1.08 (1.01 to 1.16)
Inflammatory burden§
 Lower ESR tertile111
 Middle ESR tertile2.44 (1.32 to 4.48)1.28 (0.59 to 2.76)5.84 (3.06 to 11.1)
 Upper ESR tertile3.48 (1.89 to 6.43)2.28 (1.15 to 4.53)7.19 (3.77 to 13.7)
 p Value<0.0010.055<0.001
Lipid measures
 TCh (mmol/l)0.96 (0.90 to 1.02)0.92 (0.85 to 0.99)0.96 (0.92 to 1.02)
 LDL (mmol/l)0.95 (0.88 to 1.02)0.95 (0.87 to 1.04)0.98 (0.93 to 1.04)
 HDL (mmol/l)1.13 (0.94 to 1.35)1.35 (1.09 to 1.68)1.10 (0.96 to 1.27)
 TG (mmol/l)1.03 (1.00 to 1.06)1.01 (0.97 to 1.05)0.99 (0.96 to 1.02)
 TCh/HDL0.99 (0.78 to 1.25)1.12 (0.86 to 1.46)1.06 (0.88 to 1.29)
 LDL/HDL0.89 (0.66 to 1.20)1.06 (0.77 to 1.47)1.07 (0.85 to 1.35)
  • * Adjusting for age, sex and year of RA incidence.

  • Statistically significant associations (p<0.05) are shown in bold.

  • HRs for ESR are reported per 10 mm/h increase, for CRP per 10 mg/dl increase.

  • § Cumulative ESR tertiles are defined as follows: lower tertile (0–15 000 mm/h); middle tertile (15 001–45 000 mm/h); upper tertile (≥45 001 mm/h). For each outcome the lower tertile is the reference group.

  • CRP, C reactive protein; CVD, cardiovascular disease; ESR, erythrocyte sedimentation rate; HDL, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; RA, rheumatoid arthritis; TCh, total cholesterol; TG, triglycerides.