Table 3

Adjusted risk of composite* cardiovascular events by DMARD and steroid exposure

Exposure periods (N)HR95% CI
TNF antagonists45850.390.19 to 0.82
Methotrexate47910.940.49 to 1.80
Other non-biological DMARDs1724Referent
 <7.5 mg daily31411.781.06 to 2.96
 ≥7.5 mg daily10902.621.29 to 5.31
  • Adjusted for age, gender, smoking status, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, previous myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke and modified health assessment questionnaire score, aspirin use, naproxen use, non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor use.

  • * Composite includes MI, transient ischaemic attack/stroke and cardiovascular-related deaths.

  • DMARDs, disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs; TNF, tumour necrosis factor.