Table 3

ORs (95% CI) for medical comorbidities among patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) compared with controls using conditional regression analysis

VariablePatients with AS vs patients without ASMen with AS vs men without ASWomen with AS vs women without AS
Cardiovascular
 Hypertension1.87 (1.75 to 1.99)2.02 (1.88 to 2.17)1.45 (1.27 to 1.65)
 Ischaemic heart disease2.74 (2.15 to 3.49)2.32 (1.74 to 3.09)4.49 (2.78 to 7.26)
 Hyperlipidaemia1.46 (1.35 to 1.57)1.42 (1.30 to 1.55)1.57 (1.35 to 1.82)
 Congestive heart failure1.42 (1.17 to 1.73)1.35 (1.06 to 1.71)1.61 (1.14 to 2.28)
 Cardiac arrhythmias1.82 (1.58 to 2.09)1.67 (1.41 to 1.98)2.24 (1.74 to 2.88)
 Peripheral vascular disorder1.37 (1.08 to 1.74)1.17 (0.87 to 1.58)1.89 (1.27 to 2.82)
 Stroke1.01 (0.87 to 1.17)1.01 (0.85 to 1.20)1.00 (0.75 to 1.34)
Neurological
 Paralysis1.19 (0.89 to 1.59)1.00 (0.70 to 1.44)1.70 (1.05 to 2.77)
 Other neurological disorders1.03 (0.84 to 1.26)0.90 (0.71 to 1.15)1.53 (1.04 to 2.25)
 Headache1.12 (1.04 to 1.19)1.02 (0.94 to 1.11)1.34 (1.19 to 1.50)
 Migraine1.81 (1.50 to 2.18)1.49 (1.16 to 1.93)2.31 (1.75 to 3.05)
Pulmonary
 COPD3.24 (2.38 to 4.40)2.36 (1.62 to 3.45)6.84 (3.87 to 12.10)
 Asthma0.98 (0.88 to 1.10)0.84 (0.74 to 1.09)1.62 (1.30 to 2.03)
 Restrictive/interstitial lung disease1.08 (0.70 to 1.66)1.17 (0.73 to 1.88)0.77 (0.27 to 2.21)
Endocrine
 Diabetes without complications1.11 (0.98 to 1.22)1.09 (0.97 to 1.22)1.15 (0.95 to 1.38)
 Diabetes with complications0.92 (0.78 to 1.09)0.88 (0.72 to 1.08)1.02 (0.74 to 1.41)
 Hypothyroidism2.06 (1.80 to 2.37)1.90 (1.57 to 2.29)2.27 (1.86 to 2.77)
 Obesity0.86 (0.52 to 1.41)0.69 (0.36 to 1.35)1.21 (0.56 to 2.63)
 Weight loss0.79 (0.33 to 1.87)0.35 (0.08 to 1.45)2.23 (0.68 to 7.23)
Renal
 Renal failure1.11 (0.86 to 1.42)1.16 (0.87 to 1.55)0.97 (0.58 to 1.61)
 Fluid and electrolyte disorders0.84 (0.64 to 1.10)0.72 (0.52 to 1.00)1.25 (0.78 to 2.03)
Gastrointestinal
 Liver disease1.93 (1.80 to 2.07)1.99 (1.84 to 2.15)1.65 (1.38 to 1.97)
 Peptic ulcer3.63 (3.39 to 3.88)3.75 (3.47 to 4.05)3.29 (2.88 to 3.76)
Viral/infectious
 Hepatitis2.02 (1.81 to 2.26)2.05 (1.81 to 2.31)1.90 (1.45 to 2.49)
 HIV1.11 (0.52 to 2.39)1.11 (0.52 to 2.39)
 Tuberculosis1.71 (1.23 to 2.36)1.50 (1.04 to 2.19)2.72 (1.38 to 5.35)
Haematology
 Deficiency anaemias2.74 (2.36 to 3.18)2.77 (2.25 to 3.40)2.70 (2.18 to 3.34)
Drug abuse/dependence
 Alcohol1.34 (0.93 to 1.93)1.26 (0.87 to 1.84)5.01 (1.01 to 24.81)
 Drug1.11 (0.91 to 1.34)1.07 (0.87 to 1.30)2.15 (0.98 to 4.70)
Mental illness
 Depression1.97 (1.72 to 2.26)1.85 (1.57 to 2.19)2.23 (1.77 to 2.80)
 Psychoses1.65 (1.43 to 1.90)1.66 (1.40 to 1.97)1.61 (1.22 to 2.13)
Oncology
 Metastatic cancer0.71 (0.28 to 1.82)0.54 (0.16 to 1.76)1.43 (0.30 to 6.90)
 Solid tumour without metastasis1.01 (0.84 to 1.20)0.92 (0.74 to 1.16)1.17 (0.87 to 1.58)
  • The ORs for patients with and without AS were calculated by conditional regression analyses conditioned on patients' age, gender, urbanisation level and monthly incomes. The ORs for men with and without AS were also calculated by conditional regression analyses conditioned on patients' age, urbanisation level and monthly incomes. The ORs for women with and without AS were likewise calculated by conditional regression analyses conditioned on patients' age, urbanisation level and monthly income.

  • COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.