Table 1

Efficacy of induction and maintenance therapies in PLN

Baseline patient characteristicsResponse (6 months)
Induction studies*NBlack/Hispanic (%)PLN (%)mSCr (mg/dl)mUp/Ucr (g/g)mSAlb (mg/dl)CY (%)MMF (%)
Chan et al11410/01001.24.72.89095
Houssiau et al12909/01001.23.03.0∼60NA
Ginzler et al1314056/20701.14.32.83052
Ong et al14240/01001.12.52.95258
Grootschölten et al155020/01000.73.975NA
Lu et al162130/01001.34.72.6NA83
Appel et al837012/35841.14.15356
Baseline patient characteristicsFlares (3 years)
Maintenance studiesNBlack/Hispanic (%)PLN (%)mSCr (mg/dl)mUp/Ucr (g/g)mSAlb (mg/dl)AZA (%)MMF (%)
Houssiau et al12839/01001.23.03.025NA
Contreras et al73946/49981.65.12.74323
Chan et al11620/01001.24.82.81535
Grootscholten et al153720/01000.73.917NA
Moroni et al18330/0880.92.524NA
Houssiau et al610512/0891.03.33.02219
Wofsy et al1022712/35841.14.13216
  • Results from recent (2000–10) RCTs demonstrate significant heterogeneity in treatment outcomes.

  • * Response defined as at least 50% decrease in proteinuria and to levels <3.5 g/24 h.

  • Flares correspond mostly to doubling of proteinuria.

  • AZA, azathioprine; CY, cyclophosphamide; MMF, mycophenolate mofetil; mSAlb, mean serum albumin; mSCr, mean serum creatinine; mUp/Ucr, mean urine protein-to-creatinine ratio; NA, not applicable; PLN, proliferative lupus nephritis.