Table 3

Independent risk factors for reduced survival in SSc patients by Cox regression modelling

HR, 95% CI
Risk factorp ValueHRLowerUpperχ2
Presence of proteinuria (‘+’ or more on urine dipstick)<0.0013.3432.1145.28649.6
Pulmonary restriction (FVC <80% of normal)0.0141.6441.1082.43810.3
Presence of dyspnoea (NYHA functional class III or IV)0.0121.6081.1112.3284.8
Age at onset of Raynaud's phenomenon (per 10 years)<0.0011.2951.1581.44821.8
DLCO (per 10% decrease of normal)<0.0011.2031.1181.29533.9
mRSS (per 10 score points)0.0241.1981.0251.4024.3
  • Risk factors are ranked by HR. χ2 Scores indicate to what extent each factor helps improve prediction of mortality.

  • DLCO, diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide; FVC, forced vital capacity; mRSS, modified Rodnan skin score; NYHA, New York Heart Association; PAH, pulmonary arterial hypertension diagnosed by echocardiography.