Table 5

Effects of antimalarials in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) graded according to the quality of evidence7

Quality of evidenceAM
High:
    Reduction of SLE activity (also in pregnancy)CQ/HCQ
    Reduction of mortalityCQ/HCQ
Moderate:
    Increase in BMDHCQ
    Protective effect on thrombotic eventsCQ/HCQ
    Protective effect on irreversible organ damageHCQ
Low:
    Reduction of severe flaresHCQ
    Adjuvant effect for achieving LN remissionHCQ
    Beneficial effect on serum lipid levelsCQ/HCQ
    Protective effect on osteonecrosisHCQ
    Delaying the evolution to SLEHCQ
    Protective effect on cancerCQ/HCQ
Very low:
    Reduction of 1–25 (OH)2 vitamin D levelsHCQ
    Reduction of atherosclerosisCQ/HCQ
  • AM, antimalarial; BMD, bone mineral density; CQ, chloroquine; HCQ, hydroxychloroquine; LN, lupus nephritis.