Table 3

Effects of antimalarials on survival

ReferenceType of studynHCQ/CQRaceAge (mean)Main outcomeAM effect
Hernandez-Cruz et al, 200153Case-control152CQMexican28SurvivalDose of CQ in dead vs alive 3.9 vs 39.4 (p<0.001)
CQ non-significant predictor of survival in logistic regression
Ruiz-Irastorza et al, 200644Prospective cohort with propensity score analysis232HCQ/CQW (99%)36.2SurvivalAdjusted HR 0.14 (95% CI 0.04 to 0.48)
Causes of deathNo cardiovascular deaths in AM group vs 7 in the untreated group
Alarcon et al, 200752Case-control with propensity score analysis244HCQH (33%)35SurvivalAdjusted OR 0.319 (95% CI 0.118 to 0.864)
B (38%)
W (29%)
  • AM, antimalarial; B, black; CQ, chloroquine; H, Hispanic; HCQ, hydroxychloroquine; HR, hazard ratio; OR, odds ratio; W, white.