Table 2

Effects of antimalarials on thrombosis

ReferenceType of studynHCQ/CQRaceAge (mean)Time-dependent analysisMain outcomeAM effect
Wallace et al, 198742Observational cohort92HCQ everW (70%)42NoThrombosisPatients treated with HCQ had less thrombosis (p<0.05)
Erkan et al, 200245Cross-sectional study58*HCQ prior to eventW (80%)NANoThrombosisPrior treatment with HCQ more frequent in patients without thrombosis (p<0.001)
H (8%)
B (8%)
C (3%)
Toloza et al, 20046Observational cohort446HCQ everB (45%)36.5NoArterial thrombosisNo effect (p>0.05)
H (43%)
W (35%)
Mok et al, 20054Observational cohort625HCQ everC (41%)337.5NoThrombosisArterial thrombosis: OR 0.99 (95% CI 0.53 to 1.85)
W (36%)Venous thrombosis: OR 0.73 (95% CI 0.38 to 1.40)
B (22%)
Ho et al, 200543Observational cohort442HCQ prior to eventB (39%)NANoThrombosisOR 0.53 (95% CI 0.3 to 0.94)
H (30%)
W (30%)
de Leeuw et al, 200646Cross-sectional study72HCQ everNA41NoCV diseasePatients with CV disease less time (56 vs 33 months) and lower cumulative dose of HCQ (631 vs 244 g), differences not significant
Ruiz-Irastorza et al, 200644Observational cohort232AM at the time of eventW (99%)36.2YesThrombosisHR 0.28 (95% CI 0.08 to 0.90)
Mok et al, 200747Retrospective cohortSLE 162HCQ >3 months everC29 (SLE)NoArterial thrombosisAdjusted HR 2.03 (95% CI 0.74 to 5.60); pooled analysis of patients with SLE and GN
GN 18142 (GN)
  • *This study included 133 patients with anti-phospholipid antibodies, of whom 58 had SLE. The results were obtained for the whole group of patients.

  • AM, antimalarial; B, black; C, Chinese; CQ, chloroquine; CV, cardiovascular; GN, primary glomerulonephritis; H, Hispanic; HCQ, hydroxychloroquine; HR, hazard ratio; NA, not available; OR, odds ratio; SLE, systemic lupus erythematosus; W, white.