Table 2 Correlations between SSc disease presentations (“variables”) and the geographical location of European EUSTAR centres after adjustment for confounders previously identified to influence disease presentations in the same cohort
VariableAdjusted confounderLatitudep ValueLongitudep Value
Active diseaseDcSSc
Elevated acute-phase reactantsNot lcSSc
Digital ulcersScl70 positive0.250.049
SynovitisACA negative
Joint contractures (any joint)DcSSc0.250.0490.320.01
Tendon friction rubsDcSSc
Muscle weaknessNot lcSSc0.350.005
Muscle atrophyNot lcSSc0.300.02
CK elevationNot lcSSc
Pulmonary fibrosisScl70 positive
Lung restrictive defectDcSSc
DLCO above meanACA positive−0.340.02
PAHLate RO−0.370.0030.290.02
PAH without fibrosisACA
PAH with fibrosisScl70-positive−0.360.0050.310.02
DyspnoeaACA negative
Conduction blockNone0.280.03
Diastolic dysfunctionLate RO0.51<0.001
Arterial hypertensionScl70 negative0.310.02
Renal crisisDcSS
ProteinuriaNot lcSSc
  • Positive correlation coefficients in the column entitled ‘Longitude’ signify that the parameter is more frequent in eastern compared with western centres. Positive correlation coefficients in the column entitled ‘Latitude’ indicate that the parameter is more frequent in northern compared with southern centres. ACA, anticentromere autoantibody; ANA, antinuclear antibodies; CK, creatine kinase; DLCO, diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide; dcSSc, diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis; lcSSc, limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; mRSS, modified Rodnan skin score; PAH, pulmonary arterial hypertension (assessed by echocardiography); RO, onset of Raynaud’s phenomenon.