Table 1 Mothers by initial diagnosis, and their progression (n = 229), group I: mothers enrolled within 1 year of birth of a neonatal lupus (NL)-affected child (n = 103)
Initial diagnosis at enrolmentn1*n2†Diagnosis after follow-upnMean time to diagnosisMean follow-up (years)CHB‡Rash§
Asymptomatic4432Asymptomatic143.1104
Pauci-UAS1124.765
Poly-UAS21120
Probable SS157.410
Definite SS236.320
SLE247.111
Pauci-UAS2620Pauci-UAS113.392
Poly-UAS225.002
Probable SS337.630
Definite SS224.320
SLE224.820
Poly-UAS1712Poly-UAS75.461
Probable SS137.310
SLE346.412
SLE/SS147.510
Probable SS1612Probable SS93.281
Definite SS244.802
RA11710
Definite SS66Definite SS54.741
SLE/SS139.501
SLE1510SLE84.92
SLE/SS269.220
SLE/SS1411SLE/SS3.174
  • The maternal mean age at the birth of the NL child was 30 years in both groups (16–44 years). The ethnic distribution was: 74.1% Caucasian, 9.7% African–American, 8.4% Hispanic, 5.0% Asian and 2.8% unknown/unanswered. Of 229 mothers studied, 171 had at least 1 NL child with CHB and 58 only had an NL rash child.

  • *n1, Total number of mothers who enrolled with specific diagnoses; †n2, mothers who were followed for at least 6 months; ‡CHB, mothers who had a child with congenital heart block (CHB), or a child with CHB+rash; §rash, mothers who had a child with NL rash only; ¶one mother had a child with liver involvement only but for brevity is included with rash mothers.

  • RA, rheumatoid arthritis; SLE, systemic lupus erythematosus; SS, Sjögren syndrome; UAS, undifferentiated autoimmune syndrome.