Table 3 Results of verifying the influence of glucocorticoid dose on the incidence of adverse events in multivariate logistic regression models* based on the data from the patients enrolled in the OM
Pattern/adverse eventp Value of glucocorticoid doseHazard ratio† for glucocorticoid intake >6 months
<5 mg/day5–7.5 mg/day>7.5 mg/day
“Linear” rising
    Cushingoid phenotype<0.0014.6‡10.4‡
    Ecchymosis<0.0015.27.29.4
    Leg oedema0.0231.8‡2.8‡
    Mycosisns
    Parchment-like skin0.0373.23.74.8
    Shortness of breathns
    Sleep disturbance0.0031.92.12.6
Threshold at
    <5 mg/day
        Eye cataractns
    5–7.5 mg/day
        Epistaxis0.0275.8‡2.9‡
        Weight gain0.0042.4‡2.4‡
    >7.5 mg/day
        Depression, listlessnessns
        Glaucomans
        Increase in blood pressurens
  • *Stepwise forward method of logistic regression incorporating potential impact factors age, sex, disease duration, disease severity and 20 comorbidities (hypertension, coronary disease, heart insufficiency, stroke, high cholesterol, diabetes, cancer, leukaemia/lymphoma, chronic lung disease, chronic kidney disease, chronic liver disease, chronic gastrointestinal disease, degenerative spine disease, hip or knee arthrosis, other arthrosis, psoriasis, circulatory disorder of leg arteries, thrombosis, osteoporosis, other comorbidities). †Reference group is “no glucocorticoid in past 12 months”. ‡Reference group is pooled “no glucocorticoid in past 12 months” and “glucocorticoid intake for more than 6 months less than 5 mg/day”, as the partial hazard ratio between “glucocorticoid intake for more than 6 months less than 5 mg/day” and “no glucocorticoid in past 12 months” was not significant. ns, not significant; OM, osteoporosis module.