Table 2 The relationship between study centre, potential risk factors and the likelihood of reporting CWP
VariableCWPPrevalence (%)Univariable analysisMultivariable analysis
OR 95% CI*OR 95% CI†
YesNo
Centre
    Manchester, England305525.41.01.0
    Florence, Italy214384.60.9 (0.9 to 0.8)0.9 (0.8 to 0.9)
    Leuven, Belgium304076.91.4 (1.3 to 1.6)1.2 (1.1 to 1.3)
    Malmo, Sweden354667.01.5 (1.4 to 1.6)1.7 (1.6 to 1.8)
    Santiago, Spain464848.91.7 (1.6 to 1.7)1.5 (1.4 to 1.6)
    Lodz, Poland353559.02.0 (1.8 to 2.2)1.1 (0.9 to 1.2)
    Szeged, Hungary4236110.42.3 (2.0 to 2.6)1.6 (1.4 to 1.8)
    Tartu, Estonia7441115.33.7 (3.3 to 4.1)2.6 (2.2 to 2.9)
Age (years)
    40–49658167.41.01.0
    50–59948899.61.3 (0.96 to 1.9)1.1 (0.6 to 1.8)
    60–69788388.51.2 (0.8 to 1.7)0.8 (0.5 to 1.3)
    70–79769017.81.0 (0.7 to 1.5)0.7 (0.5 to 0.96)
Beck Depression Inventory (band)
    1 (normal)16622926.81.01.0
    2 (mild)4539210.31.6 (1.2 to 2.3)1.3 (0.9 to 1.9)
    3 (borderline)269721.13.9 (2.4 to 6.2)2.1 (1.1 to 4.3)
    4 (moderate)278125.04.4 (2.7 to 7.1)2.5 (1.5 to 4.3)
    5+6 (severe + extreme)81534.86.6 (2.6 to 16.7)3.1 (1.6 to 6.1)
No of life events in past 12 months
    09113436.41.01.0
    1678707.21.1 (0.8 to 1.6)1.0 (0.8 to 1.3)
    26043012.22.1 (1.5 to 3.0)1.7 (1.1 to 2.6)
    33016215.62.8 (1.8 to 4.4)2.1 (1.5 to 2.8)
    4146517.73.2 (1.7 to 5.9)2.1 (1.1 to 3.8)
    583319.53.9 (1.7 to 8.8)2.1 (1.6 to 2.8)
    ⩾671041.29.0 (3.2 to 25.5)6.3 (2.5 to 15.7)
Reported morbidities
    None11817256.41.01.0
    1789297.81.3 (0.96 to 1.8)0.98 (0.6 to 1.6)
    25945711.42.2 (1.6 to 3.2)1.9 (1.4 to 2.7)
    33118014.73.0 (1.9 to 4.8)2.7 (1.8 to 4.1)
    4145819.44.5 (2.3 to 8.6)2.9 (1.7 to 4.8)
    5 or more103025.06.0 (2.7 to 13.3)3.9 (1.9 to 8.0)
  • *Adjusted (when relevant) only for age group.

  • †Adjusted in the multivariate model for all other variables in the multivariate model.

  • CWP, chronic widespread pain; OR, odds ratio.