Table 4 Risk factors and hand osteoarthritis (OA)
Risk factorLoE*Sample sizeRR/OR (95% CI)Reference
Female genderIb14 studies1.23 (1.11 to 1.34)Rovetta et al 22
Age, >40IIb1943.68 (2.66 to 5.09)Altman et al 8
Family history, 1st degree etcIb3 studies (n = 4183)2.57 (1.86 to 3.55)Altman et al,8 Marcelli et al,41 Schneider et al 42
Obesity:
    Relative weight index, per 20% increaseIIa12761.69 (1.27 to 2.18)Spector and MacGregor46
    BMI, >29 vs ⩽24IIb788.3 (1.2 to 56.5)Carman et al 49
    BMI, kg/m2 IIb82 pairs1.30 (1.06 to 1.59)Zhang and Doherty47
    BMI, kg/m2 IIb573 women1.03 (0.96 to 1.11)Hochberg et al 40
BMD, dg/cm2 IIb573 women1.11 (0.61 to 2.02) kl⩾2Hochberg et al 40
1.61 (1.27 to 2.07) kl = 4
Grip strength, third tertileIIa7562.8 (1.2 to 6.7)Cicutinni et al 50
History of hand injuryIIb573 women3.64 (1.34 to 9.88)Hochberg et al 40
  • *See table 2 for further description.

  • BMD, bone mineral density’ BMI, body mass index; LoE, level of evidence; OR, odds ratio; RR, relative risk.