Table 1 Glossary
Heberden and Bouchard nodesClinically defined posterolateral firm/hard swellings. Heberden: distal IPJ; Bouchard: proximal IPJ.Nodes can occur with or without radiological and/or clinical abnormalities characteristics of HOA.
Nodal OAHeberden and/or Bouchard nodes plus underlying IPJ OA, defined clinically and/or radiologically.
Non-nodal OAIPJ OA, defined clinical and/or radiographically, without nodes
Erosive OASubset of HOA defined radiographically by subchondral erosion, cortical destruction and subsequent reparative change, which may include bony ankylosis.
Generalised OAHOA plus OA at other sites.
Thumb base OAFirst CMCJ with or without STJ OA
Gold standardThe diagnostic reference used for a particular study
  • CMCJ, carpometacarpal joint; HOA, hand OA; IPJ, interphalangeal joint; OA, osteoarthritis; STJ, scapho-trapezioid joint.