Table 5 Best level of evidence of each drug treatment
CategoryType of studiesBest level of evidence
Cyclophosphamide (n = 38)Randomised controlled trials: 3
Controlled studies without randomisation: 3
Quasiexperimental studies: 81.b
Descriptive studies: 24
Prostacyclins (n = 48)Meta-analysis: 1
Randomised controlled trials: 13
Controlled studies without randomisation: 11.a
Quasiexperimental studies: 21
Descriptive studies: 5
Committee reports or opinions: 7
Endothelin receptor antagonists (n = 24)Meta-analysis: 1
Randomised controlled trials: 121.a
Descriptive studies: 11
Selective PDE inhibitors (n = 14)Meta-analysis: 1
Randomised controlled trials: 51.a
Descriptive studies: 8
Corticosteroids (n = 43)Randomised controlled trials: 2
Controlled studies without randomisation: 2
Quasiexperimental studies: 111.b
Descriptive studies: 28
Stem cell transplantation (n = 16)Randomised controlled trials: 1
Controlled studies without randomisation: 11.b
Descriptive studies: 14
ACE inhibitors and angiotensin receptor antagonists (sartans) (n = 17)Randomised controlled trials: 2
Descriptive studies: 151.b
Immunosuppressive drugs (n = 26)Randomised controlled trials: 4
Controlled studies without randomisation: 1
Quasiexperimental studies: 21.b
Descriptive studies: 19
Calcium channel blockers (n = 12)Meta-analysis: 1
Randomised controlled trials: 31.a
Descriptive studies: 8
Proton pump inhibitors (n = 6)Quasiexperimental studies: 1
Descriptive studies: 22.b
Committee reports or opinions: 3
Other treatments (n = 37):
Antibiotics (n = 7)Descriptive studies: 73
Prokinetics (n = 18)Randomised controlled trials: 51.b
Quasiexperimental studies: 3
Descriptive studies: 10
Treatment of calcinosis (n = 9)Randomised controlled trials: 11.b
Quasiexperimental studies: 3
Descriptive studies: 1
Committee reports or opinions: 4
NSAIDS (n = 3)Descriptive studies: 33
  • ACE, angiotensin converting enzyme; NSAIDs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; PDE, phosphodiesterase.