Table 4 Lumen occlusion and pathological features of the arterial wall of temporal artery biopsy (TAB) specimens in patients with giant cell arteritis (GCA) with and without permanent visual loss (PVL)
GCA with PVL (n = 29)GCA without PVL (n = 362)p Value
Percentage of arterial obstruction:0.006
<25%3 (11%)108 (30%)
25% to 50%7 (24%)88 (25%)
50% to 75%3 (10%)52 (14%)
>75%16 (55%)114 (31%)
Thrombosis5 (17%)37 (10%)0.221
    Acute2 (7%)27 (7%)*1.000
    Organised3 (10%)11 (3%)*0.077
Thickened intima:0.007
Normal0 (0%)2 (0.6%)
Mild thickening3 (10%)70 (19.4%)
Moderate thickening8 (28%)163 (45%)
Significant thickening18 (62%)127 (35%)
Neoangiogenesis21 (72%)147 (41%)0.001
Oedema of the intima13 (45%)143 (40%)0.60
Disruption of the internal elastic lamina:0.051
Non-disrupted0 (0%)13 (3%)
Mild (<1/3 circumference)8 (28%)130 (36%)
Medium (1/3 to 2/3)8 (28%)122 (34%)
High (>2/3)13 (44%)97 (27%)
Calcification7 (24%)89 (25%)1.000