Table 3 Inflammatory infiltrate in the arterial wall of temporal artery biopsy (TAB) specimens in patients with giant cell arteritis (GCA) with and without permanent visual loss (PVL)
GCA with PVL (n = 29)GCA without PVL (n = 362)p Value
Quantity of giant cells:0.003
Numerous9 (31%)30 (8%)
Medium5 (17%)65 (18%)
Rare8 (28%)103 (28%)
Absent7 (24%)164 (46%)
No. of giant cells5 (0–24)1 (0–28)0.001
Aggregates of giant cells19 (65%)121 (33%)0.001
Quantity of inflammatory cells:0.201
Absent3 (10.3%)99 (27.3%)
Rare6 (20.7%)51 (14.1%)
Medium14 (48.3%)143 (39.5%)
Numerous6 (20.7%)69 (19.1%)
Location of the inflammatory infiltrate:0.28
Absent3 (10.3%)99 (27.3%)
Adventitia2 (7%)28 (7.7%)
Media and adventitia3 (10.3%)35 (9.7%)
Intima and media0 (0%)5 (1.4%)
Diffuse21 (72.4%)195 (53.9%)
Inflammation of the arterial circumference:0.015
Absent4 (14%)115 (32%)
Mild <10%2 (7%)14 (3.6%)
10% to 25%0 (0%)14 (3.9%)
25% to 50%2 (7%)29 (8%)
50% to 75%3 (10%)46 (12.7%)
>75%18 (62%)144 (39.8%)
Heterogeneous inflammatory lesions:5 (17%)61 (17%)1.000
Presence of neutrophils9 (31%)129 (36%)0.690
Presence of eosinophils3 (10%)61 (17%)0.445
Presence of plasmocytes7 (24%)33 (9%)0.02
Inflammation of the vasa vasorum23 (79%)230 (64%)0.107
Inflammation of the distant vessels13 (45%)167 (46%)1.000
Inflammation of the nerves4 (14%)38 (10%)0.535
Inflammation of the vein03 (0.8%)1.000
Necrosis6 (21%)51 (14%)0.408