Table 3 Factors associated with one or more thrombosis events in multivariate analyses
Explanatory variable⩾1 Thrombosis OR (95% CI)p Value⩾2 Thromboses OR (95% CI)p ValueTest for trend p value
Female gender
Ethnicity
Ever smoker1.26 (1.07 to 1.82)0.0111.90 (1.23 to 2.91)0.0040.012
History of nephritis*1.35 (1.02 to 1.78)0.0361.65 (1.04 to 2.60)0.0330.000
Immunomodulator therapy†1.40 (1.08 to 1.82)0.0111.95 (1.18 to 3.21)0.0090.000
Prednisone treatment
Hydroxychloroquine treatment0.67 (0.50 to 0.90)0.008
NSAID treatment
Age at SLE diagnosis
    ⩽200.52 (0.35 to 0.78)0.001
    >20–⩽400.72 (0.54 to 0.97)0.031
    >40
Disease duration (per 5 years)1.26 (1.17 to 1.35)0.027×10−71.27 (1.12 to 1.43)0.020×10−2n/a
aPL‡3.22 (2.49 to 4.16)<10−95.05 (3.28 to 7.78)0.020×10−110.000
  • ACL, anti-cardiolipin; aPL, antiphospholipid antibodies; LAC, lupus anticoagulant; NSAID, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; SLE, systemic lupus erythematosus.

  • *Nephritis was defined as meeting ACR renal criterion, confirmed by review of medical records and/or renal biopsy consistent with lupus nephritis.

  • †Cyclophosphamide, azathioprine, methotrexate, ciclosporin, mycofenalate mofetil, or chlorambucil. All medications were analysed as “ever” versus “never use”.

  • ‡aPL (ACL IgM or IgM or LAC (measured by Russell Viper Venom Time with confirmatory and mixing studies), positive at least once documented in records).