Table 1 Characteristics of 1930 study participants with SLE
n (%)
Females1754 (91)
    Caucasian1119 (58)
    Hispanic262 (14)
    Asian/Pacific Islander227 (12)
    African-American202 (10)
    Other (mixed ethnicity)119 (6)
Age at study entry (mean, range in years)42.1 (6–83)
Age at SLE diagnosis (mean, range in years)32.8 (2–83)
Duration of SLE (mean, range in years)9.1 (1–41)
Ever smoker774 (40)
History of nephritis*598 (31)
History of immunomodulator therapy†1024 (53)
History of prednisone treatment1654 (86)
History of hydroxychloroquine treatment1534 (80)
History of NSAID‡ treatment1612 (84)
Number of subjects with
    ⩾1 thrombosis426 (22)
    ⩾2 thromboses119 (6)
    ⩾3 thromboses32 (2)
Thrombosis by subtype
    Deep vein thrombosis112 (20)
    Pulmonary embolism50 (9)
    Cerebral vascular accident98 (17)
    Myocardial infarction21 (4)
    Retinal vein13 (2)
    Miscarriage in 1st trimester (3 consecutive)5 (1)
    Miscarriage late (⩾1 in 2nd or 3rd trimester)141 (25)
    Other thromboses124 (22)
    Total thromboses564
aPL positive (ACL or LAC)§516 (27)
    ACL positive428 (22)
    LAC positive118 (6)
Thrombosis and aPL positive187 (10)
  • ACL, anti-cardiolipin; aPL, antiphospholipid antibodies; LAC, lupus anticoagulant; NSAID, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; SLE, systemic lupus erythematosus.

  • *Nephritis was defined as meeting American College of Rheumatology renal criterion, confirmed by review of medical records and/or renal biopsy consistent with lupus nephritis.

  • †Cyclophosphamide, azathioprine, methotrexate, ciclosporin, mycofenalate mofetil or chlorambucil.

  • ‡All medications were analysed as: “ever” versus “never use”.

  • §aPL (ACL IgM or IgM or LAC (measured by Russell Viper Venom Time with confirmatory and mixing studies), positive at least once documented in records).