Table 2

Effect size and standardised response mean of controlled trials comparing steroid injections with placebo or other comparator for pain intensity and physical function in patients with tendonitis

ReferenceComparatorOutcome measureWeek 1–3Week 4–8Week 12–24Week 48
Vecchio et al (1993)24PlaceboPain VASSRM = 1.16 (0.58 to 1.72)SRM = 0.90 (0.34 to 1.44)SRM = 0.00 (−0.53 to 0.53)NA
Adebajo et al (1990)16PlaceboPain VASNASRM = 1.09 (0.40 to 1.73)NANA
Limitation of function (0–3 scale)NASRM = 3.22 (2.23 to 4.08)NANA
Oral diclofenacPain VASNASRM = 0.43 (−0.21 to 1.05)NANA
Limitation of function (0–3 scale)NASRM = 0.00 (−0.62 to 0.62)NANA
White et al (1986)25IndomethacinePain VASNAES = −0.21 (−0.83 to 0.41)NANA
Berry et al (1980)26PlaceboPain VASES = −0.17 (−0.96 to 0.64)ES = −0.68 (−1.48 to 0.16)NANA
PhysiotherapyPain VASES = 0.14 (−0.67 to 0.93)ES = 0.19 (−0.62 to 0.99)NANA
Petri et al (1987)17PlaceboPain scoreSRM = 0.45 (−0.12 to 1.00)SRM = 0.66 (0.08 to 1.22)NANA
Limitation of function (0–5 scale)SRM = 0.64 (0.06 to 1.19)SRM = 0.39 (−0.17 to 0.95)NANA
NaproxenPain scoreSRM = 0.11 (−0.45 to 0.66)SRM = 0.12 (−0.43 to 0.68)NANA
Limitation of function (0–5 scale)SRM = 0.10 (−0.46 to 0.65)SRM = −0.05 (−0.60 to 0.51)NANA
Alvarez et al (2005)13PlaceboPain VASES = 0.26 (−0.24 to 0.76)ES = −0.29 (−0.78 to 0.22)ES = −0.41 (−0.93 to 0.11)NA
DASHES = 0.19 (−0.31 to 0.69)ES = −0.09 (−0.58 to 0.41)ES = −0.27 (−0.76 to 0.24)NA
McInerney et al (2003)27Wait and seePain VASNANAES = 0.10 (−0.31 to 0.52)NA
Akgün et al (2004)14PlaceboPain VASNAES = 0.71 (−0.02 to 1.40)ES = 0.28 (−0.42 to 0.97)NA
Total Constant scoreNAES = 0.35 (−0.36 to 1.04)ES = 0.09 (−0.61 to 0.78)NA
Lewis et al (2005)28PlaceboPain VASSRM = 7.08 (6.04 to 8.03)NANANA
NaproxenPain VASSRM = 5.43 (4.57 to 6.21)NANANA
Hay et al (1999)15PlaceboPain VASNAES = 1.57 (1.14 to 1.99)ES = 0.00 (−0.37 to 0.37)ES = 0.00 (−0.37 to 0.37)
Impairment of function (10 point Likert scale)NAES = 0.90 (0.50 to 1.28)ES = −0.22 (−0.6 to 0.15)ES = 0.00 (−0.37 to 0.37)
NaproxenPain VASNAES = 2.07 (1.58 to 2.52)ES = 0.41 (0.03 to 0.80)ES = 0.41 (0.03 to 0.80)
Impairment of function (10 point Likert scale)NAES = 1.35 (0.92 to 1.76)ES = −0.45 (−0.83 to −0.06)ES = 0.00 (−0.38 to 0.38)
Smidt et al (2002)29Wait and seePain VASSRM = 1.51 (1.09 to 1.90)SRM = 1.49 (1.08 to 1.88)SRM = 0.3 (−0.06 to 0.66)SRM = −0.15 (−0.51 to 0.20)
Elbow disabilitySRM = 1.45 (1.04 to 1.84)SRM = 1.46 (1.05 to 1.85)SRM = 0.10 (−0.26 to 0.45)SRM = −0.36 (−0.72 to 0.00)
PhysiotherapyPain VASSRM = 1.49 (1.08 to 1.87)SRM = 1.21 (0.82 to 1.58)SRM = −0.04 (−0.39 to 0.31)SRM = −0.41 (−0.76 to −0.05)
Elbow disabilitySRM = 1.21 (0.82 to 1.58)SRM = 1.13 (0.74 to 1.50)SRM = −0.23 (−0.58 to 0.12)SRM = −0.58 (−0.93 to −0.22)
Price et al (1991)30PlaceboPain VASNAES = 6.37 (4.98 to 7.58)ES = −2.21 (−2.85 to −1.50)NA
Bisset et al (2006)31Wait and seePain VASES = 1.52 (1.12 to 1.90)ES = 1.18 (0.80 to 1.54)ES = −0.50 (−0.84 to −0.15)ES = −0.64 (−0.99 to −0.29)
PhysiotherapyPain VASES = 0.99 (0.63 to 1.35)ES = 0.56 (0.21 to 0.90)ES = −0.81 (−1.16 to −0.45)ES = −0.76 (−1.11 to −0.40)
Tonks et al (2006)12Wait and seePREFQ-painNASRM = 1.96 (0.88 to 2.89)NANA
PREFQ-functionNASRM = 1.31 (0.34 to 2.17)NANA
PhysiotherapyPREFQ-painNASRM = 1.20 (0.18 to 2.11)NANA
PREFQ-functionNASRM = 1.45 (0.40 to 2.38)NANA
Saartok et al (1986)32NaproxenPain score (0–8)ES = −0.05 (−0.90 to 0.81)NANANA
Stahl et al (1997)33PlaceboPain VASNAES = 3.60 (2.74 to 4.36)NAES = 1.2 (0.63 to 1.73)
  • Results are presented as effect (95% CI). Significant results are in bold type.

  • DASH, Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand; ES, effect size; NA, not available; PREFQ, Patient Related Forearm Evaluation Questionnaire; SRM, standardised response mean; VAS, visual analogue scale.