Table 2 Domains and tools used to assess PROs in recent publications of RA
DomainsToolsNumber(n = 109) (%)RCTs(n = 50) (%)Other studies(n = 59) (%)
FunctionFrequency of domain91 (83.4)45 (90.0)46 (77.9)
Frequent tools (>5%)
    HAQ2067 (61.4)39 (78.0)28 (47.4)
    Modified HAQ2114 (12.5)2 (4.0)12 (20.3)
Infrequent tools (<5%)
    SOFI223 (2.7)1 (2.0)2 (3.3)
    JTHFT231 (0.9)1 (2.0)0 (0)
    MACTAR242 (1.8)2 (4.0)0 (0)
    HAQ-II251 (0.9)0 (0)1 (1.7)
    VAS functional scale1 (0.9)0 (0)1 (1.7)
    Grip ability test261 (0.9)0 (0)1 (1.7)
    ADL scale271 (0.9)0 (0)1 (1.7)
Patient globalFrequency of domain69 (63.3)37 (74.0)32 (54.2)
assessmentFrequent tools (>5%)
    PGA VAS53 (48.6)29 (58.0)24 (40.7)
    General health VAS10 (9.0)5 (10.0)5 (8.4)
Infrequent tools (<5%)
    PADS1 (0.9)1 (2.0)0 (0)
    OSRA282 (1.8)2 (4.0)0 (0)
    Categorical scale1 (0.9)0 (0)1 (1.7)
    Overall VAS1 (0.9)0 (0)1 (1.7)
    Arthritis impact VAS291 (0.9)0 (0)1 (1.7)
PainFrequency of domain61 (55.9)35 (70.0)26 (44.0)
Frequent tools (>5%)
    Pain VAS52 (47.7)30 (60.0)22 (37.2)
Infrequent tools (<5%)
    Pain severity (Likert scale)3 (2.7)0 (0)3 (5.0)
    Hand pain VAS1 (0.9)1 (2.0)0
    Patient pain score1 (0.9)1 (2.0)0
    Morning pain at rest1 (0.9)1 (2.0)0
    SMP301 (0.9)1 (2.0)0
    RADAR311 (0.9)1 (2.0)0
    NHP321 (0.9)0 (0)1 (1.7)
Morning stiffnessFrequency of domain29 (26.6)14 (28.0)15 (25.4)
Frequent tools (>5%)
    Duration of morning stiffness28 (25.0)13 (26.0)15 (25.4)
Infrequent tools (<5%)
    Morning pain on movement1 (0.9)1 (2.0)0 (0)
Quality of lifeFrequency of domain21 (19.2)11 (22.0)10 (16.9)
Frequent tools (>5%)
    SF-363316 (14.3)7 (14.0)9 (15.2)
Infrequent tools (<5%)
    AIMS353 (2.7)3 (6.0)0 (0)
    RAND 36361 (0.9)0 (0)1 (1.7)
    WC-QOL371 (0.9)1 (2.0)0 (0)
UtilityFrequency of domain18 (16.5)8 (16.0)9 (15.2)
Frequent tools (>5%)
    EuroQOL3811 (10.0)7 (14.0)4 (6.7)
Infrequent tools (<5%)
    SF-6D365 (4.5)2 (4.0)3 (5.0)
    Time trade-off instrument392 (1.8)0 (0)2 (3.3)
FatigueFrequency of domain15 (13.7)2 (4.0)13 (22.0)
Frequent tools (>5%)
    Fatigue VAS11 (9.8)2 (4.0)9 (15.2)
Infrequent tools (<5%)
    HAQ Fatigue Score401 (0.9)0 (0)1 (1.7)
    FACIT411 (0.9)0 (0)1 (1.7)
    Fatigue intensity1 (0.9)0 (0)1 (1.7)
    Fatigue effect1 (0.9)0 (0)1 (1.7)
Self-reportedFrequency of domain10 (9.1)3 (6.0)7 (11.8)
painful joint countFrequent tools (>5%)
    Painful joint6 (5.5)2 (4.0)4 (6.7)
Infrequent tools (<5%)
    RA Disease Activity Index424 (3.6)1 (2.0)3 (5.1)
PsychologicalFrequency of domain8 (7.3)2 (4.0)6 (10.1)
statusInfrequent tools (<5%)
    SSTAI432 (1.8)0 (0)2 (3.3)
    BDI442 (1.8)0 (0)2 (3.3)
    POMS-SF451 (0.9)1 (2.0)0 (0)
    POMS–B461 (0.9)1 (2.0)0 (0)
    HAD471 (0.9)0 (0)1 (1.7)
    The Life Orientation Test481 (0.9)0 (0)1 (1.7)
CopingFrequency of domain7 (6.4)5 (10.0)2 (3.3)
Infrequent tools (<5%)
    Coping Efficacy Scale491 (0.9)1 (2.0)0 (0)
    Stanford Self Efficacy Scale501 (0.9)1 (2.0)0 (0)
    RAI511 (0.9)1 (2.0)0 (0)
    SNDCI 521 (0.9)1 (2.0)0 (0)
    CSQ531 (0.9)1 (2.0)0 (0)
    RSE541 (0.9)0 (0)1 (1.7)
    GARA551 (0.9)0 (0)1 (1.7)
Productivity lossesFrequency of domain6 (5.5)1 (2.0)5 (8.4)
Infrequent tools (<5%)
    Work disability2 (1.8)0 (0)2 (3.3)
    Sick leave2 (1.8)1 (2.0)1 (1.7)
    WLQ1 (0.9)0 (0)1 (1.7)
    Work performance1 (0.9)0 (0)1 (1.7)
Well-beingFrequency of domain4 (3.6)0 (0)4 (6.7)
Infrequent tools (<5%)
    Well Being VAS Scale3 (2.7)0 (0)3 (5.0)
    GHQ 28561 (0.9)0 (0)1 (1.7)
Sleep disturbanceFrequency of domain2 (1.8)1 (2.0)1 (1.7)
Infrequent tools (<5%)
    Quality of sleep1 (0.9)10
    Sleep VAS1 (0.9)01
LeisureFrequency of domain1 (0.9)0 (0)1 (1.7)
Infrequent tools (<5%)
    Leisure activity571 (0.9)01
  • ADL scale, Advanced Activities of Daily Living (ADL) Scale; AIMS, Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales; BDI, Beck Depression Inventory; CSQ, Coping Strategies Questionnaire; EuroQOL, Euro quality of life; FACIT, Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue; GARA, General Adjustment to Rheumatoid Arthritis; GHQ 28, General Health Questionnaire; VAS, visual analogue score; HAD, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; HAQ, Health Assessment Questionnaire; JTHFT, Jebsen–Taylor Hand Function Test; MACTAR, McMaster Toronto Arthritis Preference Interview; M-HAQ, Modified HAQ; NHP, Nottingham Health Profile Pain subscale; OSRA, Overall Status in Rheumatoid Arthritis; PADS, Patient’s Assessment of Disease Severity; PGA, Patient’s global assessment of disease activity; POMS-SF, The Short Form of Profile of Mood States; RADA, Rapid Assessment of Disease Activity; RAI, Rheumatology Attitude Index; RCT, randomised controlled trial; RSE, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale; SF-36, Medical Outcome Survey Short Form 36; SMP, Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire; SNDCI, Stone and Neale’s Daily Coping Inventory; SOFI, Signals of Functional Impairment; SSTAI, Spielberger’s State-Trait Anxiety Inventory; WC-QOL, Wilson and Cleary’s Health-Related Quality of Life Model; WLQ, Work Limitations Questionnaire.