Table 1 Musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSUS) course curriculum and pathology content for basic, intermediate and advanced levels
BasicApplication, indications and limitations of MSUS in rheumatology.
Ultrasound physics and technology
Sonographic pattern of the different musculoskeletal tissues
MSUS artefacts and pitfalls
Standard sonographic scans of the shoulder, elbow, wrist and hand, hip, knee, ankle and foot
Holding the probe and optimising the grey-scale settings of the sonographic system
Image documentation
Reporting ultrasound findings and diagnosis
Basic course pathologies
Joint synovitis
Joint effusion
Synovial hypertrophy
IntermediateColour and power Doppler physics and technology
Application, indications and limitations of colour and power Doppler in rheumatology
Use of the colour and power Doppler settings
Colour and power Doppler artefacts
Use of colour and power Doppler to detect synovial and entheseal inflammation
Assessment and quantification of structural joint damage (bone, tendons, ligaments)
Sonographic-guided periarticular and articular injections
Intermediate course pathologies
Joint synovitis, synovial hypertrophy, tenosynovitis
Tendon calcification
Tendon subluxation/luxation
Intrasubstance tendon lesions
Tendon impingement
Complete tendon tear
Partial tendon tear
Bone erosions
Ganglia and cysts
Articular cartilage lesions
Peri- and intra-articular microcrystal deposit
Ligament, muscle, cartilage, fibrocartilage and synovial calcification
AdvancedOptimisation of colour and power Doppler settings
Sonographic-guided musculoskeletal interventional procedures
Assessment and quantification of synovial, tenosynovial and entheseal inflammatory activity
Role of ultrasound in vasculitis
Evaluation of vessels and detection of vasculitis by sonography
Paediatric sonography: musculoskeletal sonoanatomy and pathological findings in rheumatic diseases
Uncommon sonographic pathological findings in rheumatology
MSUS technological development
3- and 4-dimensional MSUS
Update on MSUS in rheumatology
MSUS research and methodology
Advanced course pathologies
Peripheral nerve entrapment and lesions
Ligament lesions
Fibrocartilage lesions
Muscle injury
Soft tissue masses
Loose bodies
Foreign bodies