Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the research participants
DHEAPlacebo
Patients, n3030
Age: mean (range) years55 (23–76)52 (19–76)
Disease duration: mean (range) years8 (0.1–24)6 (0.3–16)
Caucasian race, n (%)26 (87%)29 (97%)
Education level, n (%)
    Primary2 (7)1 (3)
    Secondary20 (67)23 (77)
    Tertiary8 (27)6 (20)
Marital status, n (%)
    Single3 (10)4 (13)
    Married22 (73)23 (77)
    Widowed/divorced5 (17)3 (10)
Postmenopausal, n (%)19 (63)18 (60)
Schirmer I test, median (mm)4.56.0
    ⩽5 mm/5 min, n (%)18 (60)13 (43)
Circulating SS-A antibodies, n (%)23 (77)23 (77)
Circulating SS-B antibodies, n (%)16 (53)11 (37)
Fibromyalgia, n (%)6 (20)8 (27)
Medication, n (%)
    Acetaminophen8 (27)11 (37)
    NSAID9 (30)10 (33)
    Hydroxychloroquine3 (10)7 (23)
    Beta blocker2 (7)4 (13)
    Antidepressant4 (13)2 (7)
    Anti acne drug, Isotretinoin0 (0)1 (3)
  • Postmenopausal status was defined as amenorrhoea for one year or more in women with a uterus in situ and by FSH>35 IU/L in hysterectomised women; none of the differences between treatment groups was significant.

  • DHEA, dehydroepiandrosterone; NSAID, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug.