Table 4 Hypothetical example demonstrating the relative impact of smoking status on the risk of heart failure (HF) in 1000 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 1000 non-RA subjects
Non-RA subjects with heart failure, n = 150RA subjects with heart failure, n = 250
Factor X†NoYesNoYes
Current smoking100010050
No smoking5005050
Hazard ratio (HR) smoking/no smoking100/50 = 2.0150/100 = 1.5
  • *All data are hypothetical

  • †Factor X  =  other mechanism of disease?