Table 3 Effect size calculated using modified Cohen’s d method for recommended treatments where data available
InterventionEffect size (95% confidence interval)NNH
PainFunction
Pharmacological
    Amitriptyline1.033 (−0.393, 2.458)20 23 0.51 (−12.847, 13.868)22 24 45.56 (−36.06, 127.17)
    Dual re-uptake0.341 (−0.644, 1.323)25 26 0.438 (−2.77, 3.647)25 27 9.91 (6.87, 12.96)
    MAOI0.822 (−0.024, 1.669)22 23 Cannot calculate24.29 (2.93, 37.14)
    SSRI0.824 (−0.417, 2.064)22 28 29 0.536 (−7.323, 8.395)22 28 29 8.25 (5.8, 10.7)
    Tramadol0.657 (−0.276, 1.589)30 31 0.189 (−6.312, 6.689)30 31 35 (only one study)
    Tropisetron0.799 (−0.884, 2.482)32 Cannot calculate27.47 (only one study)
    Pramipexole0.736 (−0.556, 2.028)33 0.606 (−7.073, 8.285)33 −21 (only one study)
Non-pharmacological
    Pool-based exercise0.437 (−0.659, 1.532)34 35 0.495 (−1.68, 2.67)34 −8 (one study)
    Balneotherapy1.408 (0.684, 2.133)36 38 2.085 (−5.334, 9.979)36 38 Cannot calculate
    Aerobic exercise0.377 (−0.794, 1.549)39 43 0.062 (−5.174, 5.297)39 42 −13.5 (one study)
    Strength training2.225 (1.159, 3.292)44 45 1.031 (−29.197, 31.259)44 46 16.15 (one study)
  • MAOI, monoamine oxidase inhibitor; NNH, number needed to harm; SSRI, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor.