Table 1 Future directions for antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) research
CategoryOutstanding issues
AetiologyRole of infection, drugs, tumours
Activation of complement cascade
Additional genetic markers
MechanismsComplement role
Cytokines/chemokines role
Non-ischaemic CNS, heart, skin involvement
DiagnosticsAdditional autoantibodies (Multiplex)
Livedo reticularis
Seizures/cognitive abnormalities and autoantibodies
Libman–Sacks endocarditis
TherapyOptimal INR
Anticoagulation resistant cases
Primary prophylaxis (asymptomatic aPL positive cases)
CNS, heart, skin involvements
Peptide therapy
  • aPL, antiphospholipid antibodies; CNS, central nervous system; INR, international normalised ratio.