Table 4 Risk factors for bacterial pneumonia
FactorOdds ratio (95% CI)*p Value
Gender
    Male vs female1.94 (1.29–2.93)0.001
Age
    40s and under vs 50s0.25 (0.10–0.66)
    50s1.00 (reference)<0.001
    60s vs 50s1.90 (1.18–3.07)
    70s and over vs 50s2.57 (1.48–4.45)
Steinbrocker stage classification
    III and IV vs I and II1.90 (1.11–3.22)0.018
Comorbids: respiratory disease
    Yes vs none3.90 (2.35–6.47)<0.001
  • *95% CI, 95% confidence interval.