Table 1 Ligands of inflammasomes
Inflammasome
NALP3Microbial motifs:
Bacterial muramyl dipeptide86
Bacterial RNA39
Antiviral compounds (imidazoquinoline R837 and R848)39
Double-stranded RNA and viral RNA87
Bacteria:
Staphylococcus aureus6
Listeria monocytogenes6
Viruses:
Sendai and influenza87
Toxins:
Maitotoxin (potassium ionophore)6
Nigericin (marine toxin)6
Aerolysin (Aeromonas species)36
Host danger signals:
Uric acid4
ATP6
Low intracellular potassium concentration88
UVB-induced activation of keratinocytes89
IpafMicrobial motifs:
Cytosolic flagellin38 90
Bacteria:
Salmonella Typhimurium35
Legionella pneumophila91
NALP1 (murine)Toxins:
Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin92
  • NALP, NTPases implicated in apoptosis and multihistocompatability complex transcription (NACHT) leucine-rich repeat protein; UVB, ultraviolet B.