Table 1

 Baseline disease characteristics as a function of survival in patients in the LUMINA cohort

FeatureAlive(n = 183)Deceased(n = 61)p Value*
T0, baseline visit; TL, last visit (cases and controls were matched for disease duration from diagnosis to TL within 6 months); ACR, American College of Rheumatology; CNS, central nervous system; SLAM-R, Systemic Lupus Activity Measure-Revised; SDI, SLICC (Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics) damage index; SLE, systemic lupus erythematosus; ER, emergency room; IBQ, Illness Behavior Questionnaire.
2 test for proportions and Wilcoxon rank test for continuous variables; only p values ⩽0.10 are shown.
†Warfarin and/or low molecular weight heparin.
Median (range) age at T0 (years)35.4 (16.4–62.4)34.6 (15.7–77.8)
Sex (% women)85.390.2
Ethnicity (%)
    Hispanic Texas (n = 55)20.827.9
    Hispanic Puerto Rico (n = 25)
    African American (n = 93)33.050.8
    Caucasian (n = 71)32.219.7
Health insurance (%)
Median (range) education (years)12.0 (5.0–20.0)12.0 (3.0–17.0)0.0002
Below poverty line (%)26.156.0<0.0001
Smoking (%)14.817.9
Median (range) disease duration at T0 (months)11.4 (0.3–75.4)7.0 (0.2–59.1)0.0525
Median (range) disease duration at TL (months)53.1 (0.7–146.2)48.9 (0.4–141.4)
Median (range) follow-up time (T0–TL) (months)41.8 (0.4–145.9)41.9 (0.2–144.2)
Median (range) number of ACR criteria at diagnosis5.0 (4.0–10.0)6.0 (4.0–9.0)0.0323
Clinical manifestations (%)
    Pleuritis or pericarditis38.971.7<0.0001
    Pulmonary disease8.318.60.0265
    Renal disease33.363.3<0.0001
    Immune-mediated cytopenias77.289.10.0551
    CNS involvement29.153.30.0007
Median (range) SLAM-R at T08.0 (0–30.0)14.0 (2.0–31.0)<0.0001
Median (range) SDI at T00 (0–5.0)1.0 (0–5.0)<0.0001
Anti-ds DNA antibodies (%)
Antiphospholipid antibodies (%)25.126.2
HLA-DRB1*08 (%)11.410.2
Hospitalisations due to SLE (%)24.856.6<0.0001
ER visits due to SLE (%)22.552.8<0.0001
Glucocorticoid use (%)89.688.5
Azathioprine use (%)9.814.8
Cyclophosphamide use (%)
Low dose aspirin and/or anticoagulant use† (%)27.321.3
Median (range) IBQ total score at T020.0 (3.0–35.0)19.5 (5.0–31.0)