Table 1

 Currently available cartilage and bone biomarkers

CartilageBiomarker
AggrecanG1 (hyaluronan-binding-region), chondroitin sulphate region, chondroitin sulphate epitopes, keratan sulphate, aggrecanase cleavage neoepitopes, matrix metalloproteinase cleavage neoepitopes
Type II collagenC-terminal propeptide, cross-links, collagenase cleavage neoepitopes
Other matrix moleculesCartilage oligomeric matrix protein (thrombospondin 5), cartilage intermediate layer protein, matrilin-1
Bone
Type I collagenN-procollagen and C-procollagen propeptides, N-telopeptides and C-telopeptides
Other matrix moleculesOsteocalcin, bone sialoprotein