Table 1

 Characteristics of randomised controlled trials included in the meta-analysis

StudySubstudyQSIntervention different from controlDurationMean age (years)Sex (% female)Mean BMI (kg/m2)No of subjectsWeight loss difference, kg (95% CI)
Weight loss groupControl group
BMI, body mass index; CBT, cognitive behavioural therapy; LED, low-energy diet; QS, Jadad quality score.
*Both the weight loss group and the control group received this intervention in equal amounts.
Christensen (2005)593LED formula (3.4 MJ/day) Nutrition class; CBT8 weeks6389364040−6.6 (−8.3 to −4.9)
Messier (2000)572Nutrition class; CBT6 months687136129−6.7 (−11.1 to −2.4)
Messier (2004)58a3Nutrition class; CBT18 months6870348278−3.5 (−9.3 to 2.3)
Messier (2004)58b3Nutrition class; CBT
>(extra exercise)*
18 months6974347680−1.7 (−7.7 to 4.2)
Toda (1998)562Mazindol, 0.5 mg/day low-energy soup6 weeks63100292215−4.2 (−5.1 to −3.3)