Table 5

 Independent predictors of disease presentation

ACA, anticentromere autoantibody; CK, creatine kinase; DLCO, diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide; dcSSc, diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis; late and early RO, age at onset of Raynaud’s phenomenon above and below the mean age of all patients; lcSSc, limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; mRSS, modified Rodnan Skin Score; PAH, pulmonary artery hypertension (assessed by echocardiography).
The variables are calculated by multivariate logistic regression and ranked in columns 1, 2 and 3 according to the magnitude of their explanatory effect (“1” being the strongest predictor). Variables discarded from the model are not listed. Details are described in patients and methods section.
mRSS above meanDcSSc
Active diseaseDcSScACA negative
Elevated acute-phase reactantsNot lcSScScl70 positive
Digital ulcersScl70 positiveEarly RO
SynovitisACA negative
Joint contractures (any joint)DcSScACA negative
Tendon friction rubsDcSScACA negative
Muscle weaknessNot lcSSc
Muscle atrophyNot lcSSc
CK elevationNot lcSScACA negative
Pulmonary fibrosisScl70 positiveACA negativeLate RO
Lung restrictive defectDcSScScl70 positiveACA negative
DLCO above meanACA positive
    PAH without fibrosisACA
    PAH with fibrosisScl70-positiveACA-negative
DyspnoeaACA negativeLate RO
Conduction blockNone
Diastolic dysfunctionLate RO
HypertensionScl70 negativeLate RO
Hypertensive renal crisisDcSScScl70 negative
ProteinuriaNot lcSSc